The body can live for 5 weeks without food but only 5 days without water. Most bottled water is processed water. Tap water is processed and chemically treated water. The body doesn’t recognize processed food or water and stores it in fatty cells. We should be able to access good drinking water anywhere in Australia – water that is clean, healthy and contains the mineral that our body needs every day.
Our tap water is treated with a large number of chemicals in order to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. It may also contain other undesirable contaminants like toxic metal salts, hormones, and pesticides, or it may become contaminated by chemicals or microbes within pipes (e.g. lead, bacteria, protozoa).
Typical Tap Water Contaminants;
- Fluorine compounds
- Trihalomethanes (THMs)
- Arsenic, Radium, Aluminum, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, and Barium
- Hormones and Pharmaceuticals
The long-term effects of chlorinated drinking water have just recently being recognized. According to the U.S. Council Of Environmental Quality, “Cancer risk among people drinking chlorinated water is 93% higher than among those whose water does not contain chlorine”.
Read the Full article Chlorine.pdf
Mineral fluoride in our community drinking water supply has been debated ever since it was introduced back in the mid-1940s with the aim to prevent tooth decay. The evidence is mounting that in an era of fluoridated toothpaste and other dental health consumer products that, the potential risks from consuming fluoridated water may outweigh the benefits. Many health concerns expressed by the opposition have to date been largely dismissed until recently.
Last year (2016), Harvard Public Health Magazine released an article outline a worldwide study comparing “Countries that do not fluoridate their water compared to Countries that do, have also seen big drops in the rate of cavities”.
Read the full article Fluoridated-drinking-water
Trihalomethanes (THM) are a group of four chemicals that are formed along with other disinfection by products when chlorine or other disinfectants used to control microbial contaminants in drinking water react with naturally occurring organic and inorganic matter in water. THM’s may be formed when chlorine reacts with natural organic matter that can be found in some water sources. There are many forms of THM’s, such as Chloroform, Bromoform, Bromodichloromethane and Dibromochloromethane. If the levels of disinfection by-products are not controlled they may pose a risk to your health.
Read the full article Trihalomethanes.pdf
Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate. Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over time, compared to the chemical’s concentration in the environment. Compounds accumulate in living things anytime they are taken up and stored faster than they are broken down (metabolized) or excreted.
Heavy metals can enter a water supply by industrial and consumer waste, or even from acidic rain breaking down soils and releasing heavy metals into streams, lakes, rivers, and groundwater.
An enormous range of pharmaceuticals, from painkillers to chemotherapy drugs, is entering our rivers and waterways via wastewater. The concentrations are tiny, but drug pollution has had unexpected and at times devastating impacts on plants and animals. Ecotoxicologists and health experts alike are calling for a concerted effort to better understand how pharmaceuticals behave in the natural environment.
This special Health Report program has been prepared by Corinne Podger.
This program is a repeat, and was first broadcast on 21st November 2011.
Read the full transcript Pharmaceuticals in the environment
Read the full Document Micropollutants in the aquatic environment
Many water supplies in Australia are derived from groundwater or bore water. Groundwater often can contain a number of chemical compounds. When nitrogen fertilizers are used to enrich soils, nitrates may be carried by rain, irrigation, and other surface waters through the soil into groundwater. Agricultural practices have been linked to elevated levels of nitrates in drinking water. Nitrates are very soluble in water and can move easily through soil. Over time nitrates can accumulate in groundwater that may then be used as a drinking water supply. Elevated nitrate levels may suggest the possible presence of other contaminants such as disease-causing organisms, pesticides, or other inorganic and organic compounds that could cause health problems.
Infants less than three months of age are at risk from nitrate ingestion due to the conversion of the oxygen-carrying haemoglobin in their blood to an inert form known as methaemoglobin. This condition (methaemoglobinaemia) occurs when nitrate is consumed and converted to nitrite. The affected blood carries less oxygen than it should, turning blue and depriving the body of the oxygen it needs. Infants in the first three months of life are particularly susceptible to nitrite-induced methaemoglobinaemia because their stomach acid is not strong enough to stop the growth of bacteria that convert nitrate to nitrite.
The World Health Organization (WHO) and Australian drinking water guideline levels are 50 mg/L for nitrate (as NO3-) and 3 mg/L for nitrite (as NO2-). The guideline values are established to protect young infants from met haemoglobin formation, however, the guideline advises that water with a nitrate concentration of up to 100 mg-nitrate/L can be used by adults and children over 3 months of age without risk of significant health effects (NHMRC, 2004). The WHO has also set a provisional guideline level for nitrite in drinking water of 0.2 mg/L for long-term exposure (WHO, 2008).
In Australia, nitrate concentrations in major public supplies of drinking water are typically below 0.15 mg/L, however, elevated nitrate concentrations (200-300 mg-nitrate/L) have been recorded in groundwater sourced for drinking in some rural areas. Nitrite is rapidly oxidized to nitrate in water and is rarely detected in well-oxygenated or chlorinated water (NHMRC, 2004).
Read the full Document Survey of Nitrates and Nitrites in Food and Beverages in Australia
With one of the Western world’s strongest agrarian economies, it will come as little surprise to learn that Australia is a prolific producer and consumer of pesticides. Australia has a long history of using pesticides in agricultural and forestry practices and as a result, pesticide contamination is widespread across both rural and urban areas. Below are 7 startling facts about pesticides, which illustrate why environmental management of this chemical class is so crucial.
- Pesticides are one of the most common nonpoint sources of water pollution
Nonpoint or ‘diffuse’ pollution refers to pollutants which spread across a wide area and do not have an identifiable source (like a pipe or drain). This is one of the reasons that pesticides are all the more nefarious than traditional industrial waste, as they are incredibly difficult to monitor and control.
- Australia has the world’s worst weed resistance problem
Due to the overuse of herbicides and pesticides, many of these chemicals are no longer a viable control option.
- Broad spectrum pesticides are amongst the cheapest chemicals
In Australia, it costs just $1.50 per hectare to spray a broad spectrum pesticide. These pesticides kill all insect life, and in doing so destroys the natural predation of pests by other insects, ultimately exacerbating the pest problem.
- Organophosphate insecticides are a neurotoxin
Organophosphates are designed to disrupt the neurological system of insects but it can have a similar effect on animals and humans. Organophosphates are still widely used in Australian agriculture, despite being banned in both the EU and parts of the US.
- Organophosphate insecticides are ranked as some of the most dangerous and persistent chemicals known to man
The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants identified 12 of the most persistent and dangerous organic chemicals, 9 of those were organochlorine pesticides. These have half lives lasting up to decades and are incredibly resistant to biological, physical and chemical degradation.
- 80 pesticides banned overseas are still used in Australia
This includes carcinogens, hormone disruptors, and chemicals that the World Health Organisation has classified as highly hazardous or extremely dangerous. Many of these pesticides are used on crops for human consumption.
- Pesticides need to be proven unsafe before they are banned
Australian law states that there must be conclusive scientific evidence that a pesticide is unsafe before it can be banned. Testing the effects of a pesticide on humans and the environment is a long and expensive process, so it’s unsurprising that Australia’s banned pesticides list is substantially shorter than most other countries which stipulate that a pesticide must be proven safe before it can be sold.
Read full article: www.alphaenvironmental.com.au/7-fast-facts-pesticides-australia
It not only reduces the Fluoride level in your drinking water, it removes Bacteria, Heavy Metals, Chlorine & Chloramines, Sediment and removes Bad Taste and Odour. It Alkalises, Ionises and Softens the water.
What’s more, it adds essential minerals – Magnesium and Calcium – and infuses the water with Molecular Hydrogen.
Fluoride Action Network. Dental Fluorosis.
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Fluoride Action Network. Gastrointestinal.
Martijn W. H. Pinkse, Maarten Merkx, Bruce A. Averill. Fluoride Inhibition of Bovine Spleen Purple Acid Phosphatase: Characterization of a Ternary Enzyme−Phosphate−Fluoride Complex as a Model for the Active Enzyme−Substrate−Hydroxide Complex. Biochemistry. 1999 July 20. 38 (31), pp 9926–9936 DOI: 10.1021/bi990446w
Michael Connett, Tara Blank PhD. Fluoride & Intelligence: The 36 Studies. Fluoride Action Network. 2012 December 9.
Fluoride Action Network. Water Fluoridation.https://www.alkaway.com.au/learning-centre/water-filtration/fluoride-the-latest-poison-in-our-water/