At AlkaWay we’ve responded to the problem of fluoride filtering of your water in a number of ways, depending upon the AlkaWay system you choose.
Fluoride is a very difficult mineral to remove from water – far harder than chlorine or chloramines or even heavy metals! There are only two recognised ways to remove fluoride; specialised filter media and Reverse Osmosis.
Some filters employ ion exchange, a system of exchanging one ion for another, but often suffer from unexpected ‘dumping’ of accumulated fluoride.
One big reason AlkaWay UltraStream, Jugs and Bottles are so popular is because they all address the problem and greatly reduce the volume of this nasty chemical in your drinking water.
Click here to check out a 9 part fluoride documentary.
Click here for a one-sheet summary of Fluoride compiled by the Water Quality association.
For obvious reasons, not a popular choice for vegans. The best actually measured reduction we have found for bone char is 70.64%. Here is the study.
Bone charcoal contains a carbon structure while supporting a porous hydroxyapatite matrix (a calcium phosphate hydroxide in crystalline form which is rich in surface ions which can be readily replaced by fluoride ion). Adsorption and ion exchange are thought to be the mechanism for fluoride reduction by bone char. Reduction of fluoride using bone charcoal is somewhat pH dependent, the challenge water should be below 6.5 pH to suppress any ion competition. (Unfortunately, your drinking water in Australia is regulated to be over pH 7.)
Stilbite zeolite (STI), a natural zeolite with high crystallinity and an open pore system, was modified with FeCl3 solution for the removal of fluoride from drinking water. Under ideal conditions it can reduce fluoride to below 1ppm.
Note that this isn’t all that good given our municipal water fluoride levels are controlled at 1.5ppm.
There are many, many forms of ion exchange media. Most are created specifically for use in industrial uses. Although fluoride-specific ion exchange resin is very efficient, the problem with its use in a domestic scenario is that once it is ‘full’ of retained fluoride, it can dump all of it into the output water. There is no way to tell when this may happen, meaning your filter may be working perfectly one day, and dump all the accumulated fluoride into your next glass of drinking water.
Point of use reverse osmosis is a good choice if all you want is fluoride reduction. fluoride. Using a cellulose acetate/cellulose triacetate (CA/CTA) membrane, rejection rates of 80-90 percent are achievable when the pH is in the 4-8.5 range. Note again, that it is pH dependent, and the optimum range is over 100 times more acidic than your drinking water.
For large municipal treatment systems, the use of activated alumina is probably the most commonly used fluoride removal technology. Activated alumina requires a two-step, caustic (NaOH) regeneration followed by acid (H2SO4) neutralization, regeneration process. This technology is now being used in exchange tanks for POE (point-of-entry) and disposable filters for POU (point-of-use) applications. For activated alumina to operate most effectively the pH range should be held to 5.5 to 6.5. Activated alumina is generally specific for fluoride and is not affected significantly by the common other competing sulfate, nitrate, or chloride anions in the influent water.
We use a generous layer of approved AA to give us a high level of fluoride filtration and removal over the life of the filter. (click here for Independent lab tests)
The UltraStream is our own invention, made for us in the USA.
Fill2Pure’s Ionic Adsorption Micro-Filtration coordinates all processes of contaminant reduction by Adsorption, Absorption, chemical bonding, chelation, and depth filtration. In laboratory tests it claims up to 80% of fluoride removal. Please note the term ‘up to’. This is the best we can get from the manufacturer in the US, but given the very high levels of overall contaminant reduction by this filter technology, we are inclined to believe it. We must also point out that the test is not, like the UltraStream over the life of the filter.
Fill2Pure Jug for home or travel
The UltRO removes almost all impurities from water including fluoride.
Unfortunately recent news has dissuaded us from offering the technology. As we continue to develop the UltraStream we are coming very close to the efficiency offered by reverse osmosis without the health risks.
The Alkaway Prefilter is recommended for people who already own a water filter. The Fluoride prefilter installs inline prior to your water filter, using the 1/4″ hose from you water source to your water filter.
We have sourced the very best AA media for this prefilter. However if you are concerned about possible alumina coming through your water filter, we can supply a patented KDF filter that installs between the Fluoride filter and your water filter. The Fluoride filter will usually filter around 3500 litres.
CDC. “Water Fluoridation – Surgeon General’s Statement on Community Water Fluoridation” http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts11.html, Dec.14, 1995.
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, part 143, section 5; July 1,1999; p560.
Faust,S.D., and Osman M.Aly, “Chemistry of Water Treatment”, Ann Arbor Press., 2nd Ed., 1998, p417.