Bacteria Fungi & Viruses Sizes

Bacteria, Fungi and Viruses, Sizes and Significance
(Sizes in Micrometers – MM)

 

Note:  Most are above 0.1M in size.  None are below 0.01 in size.

OrganismMicrobial Group

Rod Length µm

Rod or Coccus Diameter µm

SourceSignificance
Absidia corymbiferaFungi

3.8

EnvironmentalZygomycosis
Acetobacter MelanogenusBacteria

1.0-2.0

0.4-0.8

Strong beer/vinegar bacterium.
AcinetobacterBacteria

1.3

EnvironmentalOpportunistic infections
Acremonium spp.Fungi

2.5

EnvironmentalExtrinsic Allergic Aveons
Actinomyces israeliiBacteria

1.0

HumansAntinomycosis
AdenovirusVirus

0.08

HumansColds
Alcaligenes ViscolactisBacteria

0.8-2.6

0.6-1.0

Causes ropiness in milk.
AlkaligenesBacteria

0.75

HumansOpportunistic infections
Alternaria alternataFungi

14.4

EnvironmentalMycotoxicosis
ArenavirusVirus

0.18

RodentsHemorrhagic fever
Aspergillis spp.Fungi

3.5

EnvironmentalAspergillosis, Volatile Organic Compound
Aureobasidium pullulansFungi

5

EnvironmentalChromomycosis
Bacillus anthracisBacteria

3.0-10.0

1.0-1.3

(1.1 average)

EnvironmentalCauses anthrax in mammals
Bacillus StearothermophilusBacteria

2.0-5.0

0.6-1.0

Biological indicator for steam sterilization
Bacillus subtilisBacteria

2.0-3.0

0.7-0.8

Biological indicator for ethylene oxide sterilization
Blastomyces dermatiitidisFungi

14

EnvironmentalBlastomycosis
Bordetella pertussisBacteria

0.25

HumansWhooping cough
Botrytis cineraFungi

7

EnvironmentalExtrinsic Allergic Aveons
CardiobacteriumBacteria

0.63

HumansOpportunistic infections
Chaetomium globosumFungi

5.5

EnvironmentalChromomycosis, Volatile Organic Compound
Chiamydia psittaciBacteria

0.3

BirdsPsittacosis
Chlamydia pneumoiaeVirus

0.3

HumansPneumonia
Cladosporium spp.Fungi

9

EnvironmentalChromblastomycosis
Clostridium botulinum (B)Bacteria

3.0-8.0

0.5-0.8

Produces exotin causes botulism
Clostridium PerinngensBacteria

4.0-8.0

1.0-1.5

Produces toxin causing food poisoning
Clostridium tetaniBacteria

4.0-8.0

0.4-0.6

Produces exotoxin causing tetanus
Coccidioides immitisFungi

4

EnvironmentalCoccidiodomycosis
CoronavirusVirus

0.11

HumansColds
Corynebacteria diphtheriaBacteria

1.0

HumansDiphtheria
Coxiella burnetiiBacteria

0.5

Cattle, sheepQ fever
CoxsackievirusVirus

0.027

HumansColds
Cryptococcus neoformansFungi

5.5

EnvironmentalCryptococcosis
Diplococcus PneumoniaeBacteria

0.5-1.25

Causes lobar pneumonia
EchovirusVirus

0.028

HumansColds
Emericella nidulansFungi

3.3

EnvironmentalMycotoxicosis, Volatile Organic Compound
Epicoccum nigrumFungi

20

EnvironmentalExtrinsic Allergic Aveons
Erwina aroideaeBacteria

2.0-3.0

0.5

Causes soft rot in vegetables.
Escherichia Coli
(E Coli)
Bacteria

1.0-3.0

0.5

Indicator of fecal contamination in water.
Eurotium spp.Fungi

5.8

EnvironmentalExtrinsic Allergic Aveons
Exophiala jeanselmeiFungi

2

EnvironmentalChromomycosis
Francisella tularensisBacteria

0.2

Wild animalsTularemia
Geomyces pannorumFungi

3

EnvironmentalExtrinsic Allergic Aveons
Haemophilus influenzaeBacteria

0.5-2.0

0.2-0.3

Causes influenza and acute respiratory infections
Haemophilus influenzaeBacteria

0.43

HumansMeningitis, pneumonia
Haemophilus parainfluenzaeBacteria

1

HumansOpportunistic infections
HantavirusVirus

0.07

RodentsHantavirus
HelminthosporiumFungi

12.5

EnvironmentalExtrinsic Allergic Aveons
Histoplasma capsulatumFungi

3

EnvironmentalHistoplasmosis
InfluenzaVirus

0.1

Humans, birdsFlu
Klebsielia pneumoniaeBacteria

5

0.4-0.5

EnvironmentalOpportunistic infections, causes pneumonia and other respiratory inflammation
Lactobacillus DelbrueckilBacteria

2.0-9.0

0.5-0.8

Causes souring of grain-mashes
Legionella pneumophiaBacteria

0.6

EnvironmentalPontiac fever
Micromonospora faeniActinomycetes

1

AgriculturalFarmers’ lung, Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
Micropolyspora faeniActinomycetes

0.69

AgriculturalFarmers’ lung, Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
Moraxella catarrhalisBacteria

1.3

HumansOpportunistic infections
Moraxella lacunataBacteria

1

HumansOpportunistic infections
MorbillvirusVirus

0.12

HumansMeasles (rubeola)
Mucor plumbeusFungi

7.5

EnvironmentalMucormycosis
Mycobacterium aviumBacteria

1.2

EnvironmentalCavitary pulmonary disorder
Mycobacterium intracellulareBacteria

1.2

EnvironmentalCavitary pulmonary disorder
Mycobacterium kansasliBacteria

0.86

UnknownCavitary pulmonary disorder
Mycobacterium TuberculosisBacteria

1.0-4.0

0.2-0.5

(0.86 average)

HumansHard swelling of body tissues. TB
Mycoplasma pneumoniaeBacteria

0.25

HumansPneumonia
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (PPLO)Bacteria

0.3-0.5

Smallest known free-living organism
Neisseria meningitidisBacteria

0.8

HumansMeningitis
Nocardia BrasilensisActinomycetes

1.5

EnvironmentalPulmonary mycetoma
NocardiaasteroidesActinomycetes

1.1

EnvironmentalNocardiosis
Paecilomyces variotiiFungi

3

EnvironmentalMucormycosis
Paracoccidioides brasilensisFungi

23

EnvironmentalParacoccidioidomycosis
ParainfluenzaVirus

0.22

HumansFlu
ParamyxovirusVirus

0.23

HumansMumps
Parvovirus B19Virus

0.022

HumansFilth disease, anemia
Pediococcus acidilactciBacteria

0.6-1.0

Causes mash spoilage in brewing
Pediococcus CerevisiaeBacteria

1.0-1.3

Causes deterioration in beer
Penicillium spp.Fungi

3.3

EnvironmentalMycotoxicosis, Volatile Organic Compound
Phialophora spp.Fungi

1.5

EnvironmentalChromomycosis
Phoma sppFungi

3.3

EnvironmentalMucormycosis
Pneumocystis cariniiBacteria

2

EnvironmentalPneumocystosis
Poxvirus – VacciniaVirus

0.23

AgriculturalCowpox
Pseudomonas aeruginosaBacteria

0.57

EnvironmentalOpportunistic infections
Pseudomonas malleiBacteria

0.77

EnvironmentalOpportunistic infections
Pseudomonas pseudomalleiBacteria

0.57

EnvironmentalOpportunistic infections
Pseudormonas diminutaBacteria

1.0 0.3

Test organism for retention 0.2 µm membranes
RhinorvirusVirus

0.023

HumansColds
Rhizopus stoloniferFungi

8

EnvironmentalZygomycosis
Rhodoturula spp.Fungi

14

EnvironmentalExtrinsic Allergic Aveons
Salmonella enteritidisBacteria

2.0-3.0

0.6-0.7

Causes food poisoning
Salmonella enteritidisBacteria

2.0-3.0

0.6-0.7

Causes food poisoning
Salmonella hirschefeldiiBacteria

1.0-2.5

0.3-0.5

Causes enteric fever
Salmonella typhimuriumBacteria

1.0-1.5 0.5

Causes food poisoning in man
Salmonella typhosaBacteria

2.0-3.0

0.6-0.7

Causes typhoid fever
Sarcina maximaBacteria

4.0-4.5

Isolated from fermenting malt mash
Scopulariopsis spp.Fungi

6

EnvironmentalOnychomycosis
Serratia marcescensBacteria

0.5-1.0

0.5

Test organism for retention of 0.45 µm membranes
Serratia marcescensBacteria

1.3

EnvironmentalOpportunistic infections
Shigella dysenteriaeBacteria

1.0-3.0

0.4-0.6

Causes dysentery in man
Sporothrix schenckiiFungi

6.5

EnvironmentalSporotrichosis
Stachybotrys spp.Fungi

5.7

EnvironmentalStachybotryotoxicosis
Staphylococcus AureusBacteria

0.8-1.0

HumansCauses pus forming infections, opportunistic infections
Streptoccous lactisBacteria

0.5-1.0

Contaminant in milk
Streptococcus pneumoniaeBacteria

0.9

HumansPneumonia, otitis media
Streptococcus pyogenesBacteria

0.6-1.0

(0.9 average)

HumansCauses pus forming infections, scarlet fever, pharyngitis
Thermoactinomyces sacchariActinomycetes

0.86

AgriculturalBagassosis
Thermoactinomyces vulgarisActinomycetes

1

AgriculturalFarmers’ lung, Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
Thermomonspora viridisActinomycetes

0.6

AgriculturalFarmers’ lung, Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
TogavirusVirus

0.063

HumansRubella (german measles)
Trichoderma spp.Fungi

4.1

EnvironmentalMycotoxicosis, Volatile Organic Compound
Ulociadium spp.Fungi

15

EnvironmentalExtrinsic Allergic Aveons
Varicella-zosterVirus

0.3

HumansChickenpox
Wallemia sebiFungi

3

EnvironmentalExtrinsic Allergic Aveons
Yersinia pestisVirus

0.75

HumansPheumonic plague