by James Khan (http://www.detoxifynow.com)
(Alkaway note: rather than reinvent the wheel, we have repeated james Khan's exhaustive article on the problems with Stephen lower's arguments. We would add that we have attempted correspondence with Mr Lower. On the point of 'pure water' he even replied, agreeing that he had erred, but chose not to change his attack.)
A (long) retired chemistry professor Stephen Lower states that alkaline water is snake oil; a water ionizer is a rip-off, ionization is not possible because pure water doesn't conduct electricity, and even if ionization were possible there would be no more health benefit from it then baking soda! This is a detailed response to every point raised. If you have a question that has not been addressed, please contact us.
Why purify tap water?
You be the Judge
The Placebo Effect
Alkaline Water Books
|References to Ionized water
The Horses mouth
Appendix A: Clinical Studies
Is alkaline water a rip-off? A Comparative Costs of Water Purifiers (in UK Pounds and UK Prices)
Running Cost: £0.007 per litre
Compare £590 for 5 years of good drinking water for a family of 4 (£0.33 per day) to the average cost of insuring a car in the UK which at over £500/year is £2,500+
Bottled water at around £0.66 per litre, costs 10,000% per litre more then fresh ionized water.
The manufacturer, Emco Tech has been in business since 1970 and has been making water ionizers since 1984. They are the world's largest producer of water ionizers. Does this company sound like a snake oil merchant?
Tap water has been found to contain 100's of toxic substances from industrial pollution, significant levels of estrogen and other medications that we consume, as well as other chemical poisons that water authorities add to the water like chlorine and fluoride. All water in the UK is chlorinated. Chlorinated water has been linked to bowel, bladder and kidney cancer, spinal befida, infant heart problems and miscarriage. This is a link to a UK Govt paper that references many studies. Read between the lines, in particular paragraph 6, which admits to an association between spontaneous abortion and chlorination and recommends reduction of exposure to chlorine. The relevant chlorination studies are listed here. This is a very good article covering the common pharmaceutical drugs and household chemicals that are found in our drinking water: Drugs on Tap: what's in our water?
Considering the recent toxicological and epidemiological studies on tap water alone, one wonders if Mr Lower is well informed when he advises against a simple water purification device that so many independent experts are recommending, especially when health practitioners the world over are encouraging people to drink more clean water?
A colleague, Dr Ahson Umar has written to Dr Lower, discussing the commercial reality that drug companies are only interested in promoting products that can be patented, and academic institutions need funds. As alkaline water is a naturally occurring substance, and can be produced by anyone by the simple purification and electrolysis of tap water, there will be little commercial interest for them to conduct extensive trials and publish them. Dr Ahson suggested that as Dr Lower is interested in the public interest, he could specify tests that would satisfy him and encourage his contacts/colleagues at the University to conduct them. Perhaps this will persuade Dr Lower to evaluate the unit for himself, rather then base his views on information from web sites. (Note: this article is over five years old; Mr Lower has not responded)
I have written to academics in the UK, including Dr David Bendar of University College London, to evaluate the unit in the public interest, but they have said that clinical trials are very expensive and they don't have the funds.
Personally, I don't think you need more clinical trials; you just need tests to confirm that the unit does what it says (using scientific measuring devices and water tests). This would answer all questions about whether or not a water ionizer can actually ionize the water.
For the effects of alkaline water, academics could conduct a meta study of the studies that have been conducted mostly in Japan and Korea over the last 50 years. I suggested this to Dr Bender and that UCL could liaise with and invite the Japanese and Korean academics to the UK to further these studies in the public interest. The relevant clinical studies are listed in the Appendix.
Investigators have found that many web sites that attack natural remedies as 'Quacks' are actually funded by drug companies. This is a link to a court case ruling involving Dr Stephen Barret, the Quackwatch.com founder. VE Irons, a pioneer of fasting and cleansing, was imprisoned as have many, many other natural health practitioners simply because the profits of the drug companies are threatened by natural remedies like water, juicing and fasting.
Lets now look at Mr Lower's criticism
- "Ionized water" is nothing more than sales fiction; the term is meaningless to chemists.
Not true - see details
- Most water that is fit for drinking is too un conductive to undergo significant electrolysis.
No true - test the water for yourself. See details
- Pure water can never be alkaline or acidic, nor can it be made so by electrolysis....pure water can be considered to be ion-free, as evidenced by the fact that it will not conduct an electric current.
Not true - test for yourself. Tap water and any natural water does conduct electricity. See details.
- Ground waters containing metal ions such as calcium and magnesium can be rendered slightly alkaline by electrolysis, but after it hits the highly acidic gastric fluid in the stomach, its alkalinity is gone
True for any tap water. The second point is misleading; the stomach produces gastric juices on demand depending on the food you eat. However, even if the slight alkalinity is cancelled out, you still get clean drinking water with bio-active ionic alkaline minerals. Other measurable features things like low ORP and low NMR and so on are a plus. See details
- The claims about the health benefits of drinking alkaline water are not supported by credible scientific evidence
This judgment depends on what one labels credible. Alkaline water is just tap water with the poisons taken out of it and reduced by mild electrolysis so that the water is in a pure natural form, very similar to high altitude spring water. I think that any 'science' that says that water without poisons does not have any health benefit is questionable. These sites (of the late Dr Batmangheldj) look at some proven health benefits of water: watercure and watercure2. Appendix A lists some 100+ published studies that look at the specific effects of reduced and oxidized waters. See details.
- "Body pH" is a meaningless concept; different parts of the body (and even of individual cells) can have widely different pH value
Not true; pH is a very meaningful concept if know what you are looking for and what part of the body it is. Second part is correct, but does not validate the first. See details
- If you really want to de-acidify your stomach (at the possible cost of interfering with protein digestion), why spend hundreds of dollars for an electrolysis device when you can take calcium-magnesium pills, Alka-Seltzer or Milk of Magnesia?
Alkaline water or an alkaline diet is not about de-acidifying your stomach. It's about hydrating the body (i.e. giving it water), in the form that's best for it, with all the alkaline mineral's and other properties that the body needs. Nature doesn't make alkaline mineral water to de-acidify the stomach. See details.
> Dr Lower's 'Bottom Line' (http://www.chem1.com/CQ/ionbunk.html)
1. "Ionized water" is nothing more than sales fiction; the term is meaningless to chemists"
Not true. In the 1950's Japanese water researchers studying the properties of high altitude spring and glacier water discovered that electrolysis could be used to improve the quality of tap water. This water ionization discovery became a part of Japanese Functional Water technology, which also includes the use of magnetic fields. Since the early 1950's some thousands of Japanese and Korean scientists have been working with ionized/electrolyzed water. The first water ionizers built were very large units, first used in Japanese hospitals in the early 1950's, commercial units became available over a decade later, so you can hardly call that 'sales fiction'.
Are we to believe that these people don't know anything about chemistry, or that these countries don't have any chemists? In the UK high street Chemists do stock water ionizers. The term 'ionized water' may be meaningless to chemists that don't know anything about the technology, or don't want to know, but not to all scientists. Chemists are far removed cutting edge science in any case!
See Appendix for some 100+ published studies. Much of the early work has not been translated into English.
Some 15% of Japanese households use ionized water. Alkaline water is available in hospitals and clinics throughout Japan and Korea and is registered as a medical device by the Governments of both these countries. The combined output of the major water ionizer manufacturers (Toyo Industries, Panasonic, Mitsubishi, Akai, Emco Tech/Jupiter Science) is over 1 million units per annum. Sanyo has announced a washing machine that uses electrolyzed water which will not require any washing powder and an air filter that uses negative hydrogen ionized water to kill viruses. Just think of the cost savings and environmental benefits of using just ionized water instead of chemicals for most household things like detergents, antiseptics, shampoos, etc. In 10 years time electrolyzed water and devices will be available in every home.
Japanese and Korean research in this area is far more advanced then anything in the west. This is because research funding is allocated differently over there - less controlled by the pharmaceutical companies and what are called the government-industry revolving doors that we have in the west.
A doctor at the prestigious Seoul National Medical University, Dr Choi says that 'the effects of alkaline water are both a scientific fact as well as medical fact'.
2. "Most water that is fit for drinking is too un-conductive to undergo significant electrolysis."
Not true. Try it yourself on your tap water. Measure the pH of the tap water, the acid water and the alkaline water using a pH meter or universal indicator. Measure the ORP values with an ORP meter. If you don't find any significant pH change, then return your unit and most suppliers from reputable manufacturers like Emco Tech will give you your money back. In 99% of cases we find that tap water does undergo significant electrolysis, particularly with the latest Emco Tech models that add beads of coral calcium and tourmaline to the filter which aids the ionization process. JK]
3. "Pure water can never be alkaline or acidic, nor can it be made so by electrolysis....pure water can be considered to be ion-free, as evidenced by the fact that it will not conduct an electric current."
What I assume Dr Lower means is that pure distilled H20 is neutral, but chemically pure H20 does not exist in nature; even when you make distilled water it soon absorbs atmospheric gases and its pH becomes slightly acidic. Chemically pure H20 is not pure water, but an artificially created substance - it does not have any ions and cannot conduct electricity. But such water does not occur anywhere outside the chemistry lab, so this argument is not relevant to anything. The statement is totally misleading. Try telling an electrician that tap water doesn't conduct electricity, so you can pour it on electric power sockets!
WARNIING: Please don't do this or you might set your house on fire: all tap water conducts electricity.
Virtually all the water in the world and all the water in your body contains ions, it is the ions that allow the water to be used for life. Without the ions the water would not sustain life - fish, for example, die when placed in distilled water. Even rain water is not distilled water. JK]
4. "Ground waters containing metal ions such as calcium and magnesium can be rendered slightly alkaline by electrolysis, but after it hits the highly acidic gastric fluid in the stomach, its alkalinity is gone."
As we discussed, any tap water (not counting lab distilled water) contains ions, which is why it conducts electricity and can be electrolyzed Yes, if your stomach contains a lot of food that it is digesting with strong acids, then the alkaline pH would be gone because the stomach acids would be several thousand times more acid then the slight alkalinity of the ionized water.
But this doesn't mean anything - the purified water will still be hydrating, provide alkaline minerals and all the other benefits, and zero toxins - you just won't get the slight alkaline boost for your blood pH that's all. This is a minor benefit in any case, but you should drink any water first thing in the morning and in-between meals, not during or after meals to get the most benefits. When the stomach is empty, the water or freshly squeezed juices will flow straight through, and not be significantly effected by the acid stomach pH.
The actual pH (i.e. the measurable pH, 8-10 usually) is not the major benefit of this water - 'alkaline' is just a label used to describe the water, one of many labels. You could call it natural water, pure of contaminants, or pure natural water, pure mineral water . If you analyse natural spring water from the Alps or better still Glacier water, you will find that it has all these properties: alkaline pH, high alkaline mineral content, low acid mineral content, low ORP (i.e. reduced), low NMR (small clusters).
What is important is what is contained in it. In health circles alkaline water is also called Micro water, Light water, Micro-clustered water, Reduced water, Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW), Ionic mineral water and even Miracle Water in one Japanese TV documentary. Appendix A lists abstracts from 100+ published papers that give an indication of the diverse uses of ionized water and terminology used.
When sensible nutritionists and naturopaths talk about an 'alkaline diet' they are NOT talking about neutralizing the acidity of the stomach acids that are needed to digest our food with chemicals! Alkaline foods like super greens and carrot juice are not particularly alkaline if you measure the pH with a meter, but they will have an overall slight alkalizing effect (or less acidifying effect) when you change your diet to eat more of them. An important point to note is that if you are eating live, alkaline foods like fruits, freshly squeezed juices you should do so on an empty stomach to help the digestion process and get the most benefits (i.e. nutrients, enzymes and energy) from the food. This is less of an issue with alkaline water, since there is nothing to digest in water. JK]
5. "The claims about the health benefits of drinking alkaline water are not supported by credible scientific evidence"
Health benefits are difficult to quantify with any natural substance like clean water, fresh air or live food; this does not mean that there are no health benefits. Common sense tells us that good clean water would be more beneficial for our health then dirty, poisoned water. Pure natural water from high altitude mountain springs and glaciers is alkaline water. If you were to go to the Alps and live there, you'd find after several months an improvement in your general health. Researchers that have looked at the heath of high mountain people have traced it to the local water that they are drinking.
There is plenty of credible evidence to suggest there are some benefits from alkaline water - seek and you shall find. Appendix A lists abstracts from some 100+ published papers. Is not one of them even a teeny, weeny bit 'credible'?
Do we need something labeled as 'credible scientific evidence' to know that clean water or clean air or clean food is good for our health? Isn't a little common sense enough? I would be very interested in any evidence (credible or incredible, published or not published) that pure, unpolluted water is NOT good for your health, and polluted water is.
Take 2 glasses of water, one tap water which has chlorine, fluoride, female sex hormones and 100's of other toxic substances in it; the other glass has the same water, but with all those poisons taken out of it. Which would be better for your health? Do you need credible scientific double blind studies published in prestigious journals to prove that drinking toxic sludge is NOT good for your health before you stop drinking it? Who decides what is credible, high priests behind modern medicine: The New World Religion?
Surely if world renowned experts like Dr Gabriel Cousins, Daniel Reid, Sang Whang, Deepak Chopra, Tony Robbins, Ray Kurzweil, Dr Terry Grossman, Dr Theodore Baroody, Dr Sherry Rodgers, Dr Susan Lark, Dr Robert Young and countless others worldwide are drinking alkaline water and recommending that you should drink it too, then it's worth considering?
Do these people have anything to do with water ionizer manufacturers?
Do they benefit in any way from the water that you drink in your home?
Do you really think that these people are snake oil peddlers?
Could it be that these experts are giving honest advice, based on their personal experience? JK]
6. "There is nothing wrong with drinking slightly acidic waters such as rainwater"
Yes, slightly acid water is harmless, but it's not particularly beneficial either. By definition, acid water if deficient in alkaline minerals and has harmfully acid elements in it. This study of "Cola beverage consumption induces bone mineralization reduction in ovariectomized rats", of rats fed cola (acid, pH 2.5) suggests that calcium from the bones is used up in maintaining an alkaline blood pH balance, so your better off not drinking it.
7. ""Body pH" is a meaningless concept; different parts of the body (and even of individual cells) can have widely different pH values."
[Not true. Body pH doesn't become a meaningless concept just because different parts of the body and cell have different pH values. We are like alkaline batteries, the polarity between acidity and alkalinity could the key to many bodily functions - like acid-alkaline batteries, we need the cellular polarity, otherwise we'd be dead.
What do Clinical Studies suggest?
This study of "Cola beverage consumption induces bone mineralization reduction in ovariectomized rats" (the rats were fed cola - acid, pH 2.5 - and the effects on bone density measured) suggests that calcium from the bones is used up in maintaining an alkaline blood pH balance. The researchers concluded: "These data suggest that heavy intake of cola soft drinks has the potential of reducing femoral mineral density".
This study on the effects of alkaline ionized water on milk yield, body weight of offspring and perinatal dam in rats tentatively concludes that "higher calcium concentration of AKW [alkaline water] enriched the mother, serum calcium which was transferred to the fetus through the placenta and to the offspring through the milk."
This study on the Influences of alkaline ionized water on milk electrolyte concentrations in maternal rats states "These data suggested that the Ca cation of AKW enriched the Ca concentration of the milk and accelerated the postnatal growth of the offspring of rats given AKW"
In 1996 Dr. Lynda Frassetto at the University of California, San Francisco, discovered that as we age, starting around age 45, we lose the alkaline buffer bicarbonates in our blood. By the age of 90, we lose 18% of bicarbonates in our blood. This loss was shown to be diet induced.
"Our group has shown that contemporary net acid-producing diets do indeed characteristically produce a low-grade systemic metabolic acidosis in otherwise healthy adult subjects, and that the degree of acidosis increases with age, in relation to the normally occurring age-related decline in renal functional capacity."
"If you really want to de-acidify your stomach (at the possible cost of interfering with protein digestion), why spend hundreds of dollars for an electrolysis device when you can take calcium-magnesium pills, Alka-Seltzer or Milk of Magnesia?"
[Who said anything about de-acidifying the stomach? You can never 'de-acidify the stomach' simply because the body produces acids on demand, and without this acid you won't be able to digest your food so you shouldn't try to de-acidify it. Alkaline water is much too mild to have any significant effect on stomach pH. Ant-acids are a billion dollar business, but a total waste of money, and actually harmfully as they reduce our ability to digest protein foods.
When you drink alkaline water, two things are possible:
1. If your stomach is full, the water could get trapped in the acid stomach environment. The alkalinity would be neutralized by the stomach acid, and the stomach may produce slightly more acid. A pathologist friend of Sang Whang, Dr. Stephen Weiss explains that in the process of producing more stomach acid (hydrochloric acid), the body creates sodium bicarbonate (an alkaline buffer) and adds it to the bloodstream.
H20 + CO2 + NaCl = HCl + NaHCO2
Water + carbon dioxide + salt = hydrochloric acid + sodium bi-carbonate
So the net result is an increase in alkaline buffer. This does not happen if you ingest bicarbonates (baking soda) because the body converts these to water, carbon dioxide and sodium salt. The bicarbonates will not reach the bloodstream no matter how much you consume.
2. If the stomach is empty, it is likely that the water would go straight through the stomach to the intestine, and go to the blood stream to give it an alkaline pH boost, and any excess will replenish the alkaline buffers. As Sang Whang explains
"If alkaline water is introduced directly into the bloodstream from the intestine, the acid buffer (carbonic acid, H2CO3) will interact with the alkaline water to bring down the blood pH and the acid buffer will become the alkaline buffer
Ca(OH) 2 + 2(H2CO3) = Ca++(HCO3-)2 + 2(H20) (calcium bicarbonate buffer in the blood is the net result)
An increase of bicarbonates in the bloodstream will prevent aging and the onset of adult degenerative diseases."
Acid-Alkaline, Stomach Acids and Food
Yes, after a heavy meal, Alka-seltzer might help disguise indigestion, but the badly combined food that you've ingested will need to be processed by the body, and this is not easy. If you artificially add Alka-Seltzer, you're not helping the body. My suggestion would be to follow simple acid-alkaline food combining guidelines, and don't eat so much, so you won't get this problem. I know this from personal experience as I've been doing this for the last 15+ years. Remember the Pavlov experiments with rats - a protein-starch mixture takes 3-4 times longer to digest then the same things eaten separately. "In rodents!" you might say. Yes, but it could be an indication of what may happen in our stomach. Our body is quite intelligent; it can handle up to some 70% mixtures, particularly of natural foods, but that's no reason to continuously abuse basic dietary principles.
Try a little experiment: one day for lunch eat a steak with chips, and monitor how you feel after an hour or so. Next day eat the same steak, but with a simple vegetable salad. Which day did you feel more tired, drowsy? Which day did you feel less tired drowsy? You ate the same amount of food on both days, so what could account for the difference? Try a McDonalds diet for a month; then try an alkaline diet of fruits, vegetables and juices and super greens for a month. Notice a difference?
The level of acid on the stomach is related to the type of food that you consume. This is a fact: eat lots of proteins and the body manufactures a lot of acids, and enzymes that require an acidic environment. Salads and fruits produce much less acid and require enzymes that function in an alkaline environment.
What about acid fruits?
This includes acidic fruit like lemons and oranges. The pH is not relevant for here; what is important is how the body treats the food. There is an intelligence native to the body, that tells it what enzymes, gastric juice concentrations, and other factors will best digest what you eat.
If you eat two opposing foods like protein and starch in the same meal then the food combination will be harder to digest, no matter how intelligent the digestive system is. Fruits, which are digested not in the acidic stomach, but in the duodenum, will start to ferment in the acid stomach environment.
Isn't alkaline mineral water neutralized by stomach acidity?
Is the stomach always acidic, even with no food in it? Would the stomach of someone who has been fasting for 7 days on alkaline mineral water alone be acidic? I don't know the answer, either way nature will have found a solution.
Korean research suggests nature may well have a mechanism for transporting essential minerals like calcium, magnesium, potassium to the cells where they are required through the acid stomach. According to Dr Moo-Shik Chun, professor at the Korea Science and Technology Institute, ionized calcium atom forms hexagonal water structures around it. It's as if the water structures form around the water to protect it on it journey through the stomach and fluid system.
Prof Chun also says that one protein molecule is surrounded by 70,000 water molecules, which form 3 different layers called X, Y and Z layers. These layers have different properties and different structures according to Dr Chun, and about 60-65% of this water is hexagonal water, which is most suitable for our body. Dr Chun says: "It can be said that hexagonally structured water is the water that living organisms like. This may explain the fact that snow melted water is good for the growth of plankton, green algae, etc. The water from snow has high contents of hexagonal structures."
You don't drink ionized water to neutralize stomach acidity. The following are some important benefits:
- Our body has an absolute need for water (we are 70% water). Each day we lose 1.5 litres water by urine, and another 1.5 litres by sweat, breath and other means. This water needs to replaced by water - other drinks like tea/coffee/soft drinks, etc are diuretics so you end up losing more water. Everyone I know that has a water ionizer is drinking 2-3 times more water then they used to - the ionizer allows them to drink the 2-3 litres of water they should be drinking daily. This alone is sufficient reason to obtain an ionizer for your home, all other benefits are a plus. With tap water, we just don't drink enough water, and even if we did, would all that chlorine and other chemical substances be advisable? Many, many people are advising that you should purify your tap water at point of use, including the late Dr Batmangheldj, author of The Bodies Many Cries for Water. The additional benefits from reduced/ionized water include:
- The electrolysis changes the water clusters so the water is much more hydrating. No matter what any critic says, this is something that you will experience immediately on drinking it; you don't get the 'bloated tummy' feel from drinking a lot of it. I drink 2 pints of ionized water every day for breakfast, I couldn't do that with any other water. The proof is in the pudding - try it for your self
- It's a good supply of colloidal, alkaline minerals
- It's a good supply of anti-oxidants, as indicated by low ORP (i.e. the water is highly reduced)
- It provides excess oxygen in the stable -OH form. JK
"Electrolysis devices are generally worthless for treating water for health enhancement, removal of common impurities, disaffection, and scale control."
[Not true, see the Clinical Studies. I think that in 10 years time electrolysis devices will be used used for all these things, and more. All the medical people that use alkaline water say that it helps enhance general health. Just removing the chlorine is a significant health benefit. Water Tests show that a water ionizer removes all common impurities; the 0.01 micron filter units, for example, filter to the same purification level as kidney dialysis machines. Alkaline or acid water kills most if not all known microbes within seconds. JK]
How does Dr Lower explain that the thousands of users world wide that drink ionized water swear by it, and won't give up their water ionizers? 'It's the Placebo Effect - stupid '
Will water that purports to be "ionized" or "alkalized" make me feel better, younger, more vigorous, etc.?
Quite possibly, yes! Studies have shown that placebos can relieve the symptoms in about 40 percent of those who suffer from chronic ailments. They are probably even more effective for those who are inclined toward "alternative medicine" or the "wellness" industry. In other words, if you "believe" that something might help, it may well do so, and the more people are made to pay for it, the more eager they will be to have their beliefs confirmed.
This is very true, but the effects of ionized alkaline or acid water have nothing to do with the placebo effect. The first Japanese Government tests in the 50's were conducted on plants and animals. Plants and animals are NOT subject to placebo effects. Read the Livestock results from 27 dairy farms. Appendix A lists 100 published studies on the effects of ionized water, are these effects due to a placebo?
Try a simple experiment yourself - take 3 seedlings and daily feed them tap (control), acid and alkaline waters. See what happens after a fortnight/month. Plants are not subject to placebo, but to to make it more 'scientific', make it double blind by, say, getting a supplier to provide the water in batch labeled water bottles and giving them to someone else to administer. That way, neither you or nor the feeder knows which water is fed to which plant. At the end, check the growth levels in the 3 plants. Repeat the experiment 100 times for statistical accuracy. What results do you think you'll get? These and other experiments on the effects of alkaline and acid ionized water have been repeated time and time again, with the same results.
"Real Modern Medical Science = Chemical Drugs; Natural Health Products = Placebo Effect"
Why is it that 95% of cancer patients die from Chemotherapy treatment? Why do 95% of AIDS patients die from AZT treatment? Surely, from the placebo effect alone, some 40% should have got better in both cases?
What would happen if you feed 100 patients MacDonald’s food and nothing else for a month, and told them daily that it would 'make them feel better, younger. more vigorous, etc' so they get the max possible dose of the placebo? Would they be better, younger, more vigorous at the end of it, or would they all be dead? If they all end up dead, which I suspect they would, then what happened to the 40% placebo effect?
Why does Dr Lower not warn about the dangers of fast food chains, supermarket processed foods, fraudulent medical research, Chemotherapy, AZT and lies about AIDS, , Fluoride, Microwave ovens, mobile phones, Industrial Pollution, GM Foods, and countless other real dangers that we are faced Aspartamewith? Could it have something to do with the fact that these very real scams are made by large multi-nationals, including chemical and pharmaceutical giants who put profits before peoples health?
Watch this amusing look at the drugs culture: Licensed to Pill
It's interesting that the 40% placebo effect is always labeled as the cause for any health improvements caused by simple natural things like pure alkaline water, diet, proper nutrition, food combining, restoring proper pH balance, fasting & cleansing, removal of toxins and acid wastes - the so called alternate-health stuff on this site some of which I have been practicing for over 30 years, and which has a tradition going back to over 5000 years! Modern medicine is barely 100 years old.
"This is just alternate crap, for REAL medicine you need REAL drugs, with REAL credible scientific evidence, published in REAL Journals that we control".
But why is it that you don't get this placebo effects from all these REAL drugs peddled by the commercial giants?
In the early 1980's I worked as a lowly undergraduate on industrial work placement with Professor Rodger Ekins at the Middlesex Hospital in London. Prof Ekins is a brilliant biophysicist who had just missed out an winning the Nobel Prize for his pioneering work on radio-immuno assays and ligand assays. One project I worked on was the 'WHO free T4' study where over a 2 year period we measured blood samples and the effectiveness of 10 manufacturer's kits, under Dr Tom Jackson. The report was completed and a pre-publication report sent to all the manufacturers. Some weeks later, Tom asked me bring up the summary charts that I had prepared on an Omnis database that ran on the Apple Macintosh just launched. Tom told me to take out some of the points for one of the large manufacturers (the ones that diverged significantly from the reference), so that the data would be closer to the +- 5% error - he said it could be due to batch/human error, and the final report was slightly changed. I didn't query it at the time, but I suspect that it was due to an appeal by the large manufacturer to tone down our criticism! We all knew that this manufacturer didn't understand the process, and his kit didn't measure anything - the Prof talked about it often.
This was a harmless case, but now the commercial reality is that with so much invested in drugs, academic interference, suppression or outright control is something that happens time after time and is one reason so many toxic substances and drugs like Aspartame get approved for human consumption and simple remedies that would save lives are ignored or actively suppressed, often with legal threats and intimidation. This years Nobel Prize winners talked about the huge resistance they had in their fight against to get the role of Helicobacter Pylori accepted as the true cause of ulcers and gastric cancers.
[Professor William Doe of the Australian National University comments, "how difficult it is to change medical paradigms because everyone has a vested interest in the status quo". The pharmaceutical industry held the biggest vested interest in ulcers. Two of its biggest all-time earners have been the acid suppressing drugs cimetidine (Tagamet) and ranitidine (Zantac), and Astra had just launched the first of a new, even more potent type of acid suppressant. These drugs did not cure ulcers, meaning patients often needed lifelong therapy. The notion that common garden varieties of antibiotics (many of which were out of patent and so did not hold the lure of vast profits) might cure ulcers was, unsurprisingly, not high on the industry's priorities. The pharmaceutical industry is the main source of information for doctors, which helps explain why Tagamet and Zantac are still big sellers.]
Government officials also collude: [Public health authorities and pharmaceutical interests are often in collusion without regard for public welfare. The recent FDA approval of Vioxx is a more current example.]
Physicians promoting Chondroiton and Glucosamine for arthritis also mentioned that none of the companies was interested in them because they can't be patented. This is the case with all natural remedies - the profits of pharmaceutical companies are threatened by simple truths about the causes and cures for disease. Dr Batmangheldj writes about his struggles to get the simple truth about water spread amongst physicians in his book The Bodies Many Cries for Water via bodies like the American Medical Association and the National Institute of Health. If you read it, it will bring you to tears: the people that we have entrusted with with the responsibility to look after our health have sold their consciences.
Rodger Williams, a Cambridge Graduate and a British MP mentions Parliamentary privilege (protection) to be able to speak about the aspartame scandal:
"Eminent academics from the UK and further a field have persuaded me beyond doubt that aspartame represents a serious health problem. The history of aspartame's approval is mired in controversy, not least because of the likes of Donald Rumsfeld "calling in his markers" to get it approved. The science that supported its approval was biased, inconclusive and incompetent. Aspartame is in a higher category of risk than Sudan 1, the UK's fastest recalled food substance. However, bad science, bad regulation and bad politics have left the bigger of those two threats in everyday products on our supermarket shelves. Crucial questions that have been largely repressed since the early '80s hang over aspartame's safety. When journalists attempted to tackle those questions, their newspapers were threatened with intimidating letters from the industry's lawyers. I am duty-bound by the immunity afforded to me under parliamentary privilege and as a servant of the public to initiate a debate that has been silenced for over two decades."
In the late 80's I worked at the Health Education Authority, who at that time produced all those national TV adverts about HIV causing AIDS. In one campaign the HEA produced AIDS information material at a cost of 5 million pounds. At a late stage, the then Margaret Thatcher Government decided it didn't like the leaflets, so they all had to be scrapped! None of us at the time were aware that not a single paper had been published to prove that HIV causes AIDS. If you know of a study paper, then you can collect a 10,000 dollar reward. A German court has established that there is no proven link. How then did Robert Gallo announce that HIV causes AIDS? He became a millionaire from a HIV test that he patented just before the announcement. Is this whole thing not a scam and a fraud, especially since Gallo was later convicted? Why have so many academics remained silent for all these years? Contrast this with the men of conscience that spoke out about the Prof Hwang and the fabrication. This fraud could have also gone on for years, if Hwangs colleague didn't have a conscience. JK]
Here is a summary of some of the more common claims with my comments.
"Ionized water" machines actually bring about the electrolysis of ordinary water.
[Yes, they do. Fact, not fable, see above. If you do simple tests (pH, ORP), and find that they don't then send your unit back. JK]
If the water is pure enough to be potable, the amount of electrolysis that actually occurs is too small to be significant.
[Not true. See above. JK]
These devices separate the alkaline water (produced at the negative electrode) from the acidic water (produced at the positive electrode), allowing you to draw them off separately.
[Fact, not fable, see above. JK]
This will not work with pure water because it is physically impossible to have water that contains an excess of OH (alkaline) without the presence of a charge-compensating metallic ion such as Na+ or Ca2+. Similarly, any water that is acidic (excess H+ ion) must contain a compensating impurity ion such as bicarbonate or sulphate. Thus ordinary drinkable water which contains only very low concentrations of metal ions will yield only weakly alkaline solutions.
[Not true in the real world. See my comments above about 'pure' H20. JK]
Alkaline water is important for maintaining proper body pH and preventing acidosis.
[Fact, not fable, read my website and the many books and other literature all over the world about Alkalizing for Health]
The pH of intracellular bodily fluids such as blood is controlled by an exquisitely-balanced set of reactions involving removal of (acidic) carbon dioxide through the lungs, removal of (alkaline) ammonia through the kidneys, and the buffering action within the blood by bicarbonate, and to a smaller extent by phosphate and certain proteins. In the most important of these mechanisms, carbon dioxide produced by cell metabolism reacts with water to form carbonic acid H2CO3, and this reacts with carbonate in the blood to form bicarbonate
H2CO3 + CO32 --> 2 HCO3-
which is carried by the blood to the lungs, where the carbon dioxide is then regenerated and expelled:
H2CO3 --> CO2 + H2O
The pH of blood is especially critical and must be maintained within the range of about 7.35 - 7.45. If the blood pH falls outside this range the condition is known as acidosis or alkylosis. Temporary acidosis can be induced by holding your breath, preventing release of CO2. Temporary alkylosis can be induced by hyperventilation, causing excess release of CO2. Chronic acidosis or alkylosis can be very serious and is often associated with kidney failure.
[Yes this is true. However, this does not prove that alkaline water is NOT helpfully for maintaining proper alkaline body pH and preventing acidosis! How can alkaline water not help the body maintain alkalinity? If you take 10 gallons of water with pH 7.3, add 3 litres of alkaline water at ph 10, will the original pH of 7.3 become more alkaline or less? Our body has around 10 gallons of water, and if you continue to drink 2-3 litres/day of alkaline water, it will gradually help the body maintain the ideal alkaline pH of about 7.365 JK]
The pH of ordinary drinking water will have little effect on the pH of the stomach contents because gastric fluid has an overwhelmingly low pH (Gastric fluid is essentially a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid.) Hundreds of millions of years of evolution have adapted humans to tolerate drinking waters having a fairly wide range of pH (5-8). Any water that is sufficiently alkaline to significantly affect gastric pH is unlikely to be considered potable by most people. Further, the enzymes that digest proteins in the stomach require a low pH in order to function properly, so if one were to ingest sufficient alkali to reduce gastric pH, it would also interfere with digestion.
[Also true, but again beside the point! Gastric juice neutralization has nothing to do with alkaline water, and gastric juice neutralization would be bad for food digestion. This is definitely not advised by naturopaths and nutritionists that advice an alkaline diet!
Incidentally, there is no danger of alkalizing the gastric juices - even if you drink 32 glasses of high pH alkaline water it will only upset stomach pH balance to the level as a can of cola with a pH of 2.5 would. JK]
If you really want (or need) to reduce gastric acidity, products such as Milk of Magnesia or Alka-Seltzer are cheaper and more effective than "water ionizer" machines. But bear in mind that acidosis and alkylosis are serious conditions that require medical intervention and can be properly diagnosed only by measurements of blood electrolyte and CO2 content.
[Again, misleading. See above. JK]
The oxygen produced during electrolysis invigorates the body.
[FALSE! Who said anything about oxygen gas produced during electrolysis? Take 2 equal glasses of water, one with neutral water, the other with the same water, but all the H+ ions taken out of it. Which water glass will have more oxygen atoms in it (as OH)?]
The amount of oxygen that water can hold is very limited, and it is not significantly absorbed by the gut anyway. You can acquire far more oxygen by just taking an extra breath. For more on the myth of oxygenated waters, see the OxyScams page.
[Very true, but nothing to do with alkaline water. This, incidentally is another reason why deep, regular breathing is so important for health. JK]
"Ionized water" acts as an effective antioxidant and free redical fighter, and can even halt or reverse ageing.
[Fact that ionized water is an anti-oxidant. What do you understand by the terms 'Reduced water' and Oxidized water? How does one measure them?
Sang Whang presents a theory of aging, which is that aging is a gradual process of the accumulation of organic acid wastes in the body. Experimental evidence shows that this appears to be the case - increase the rate of acid wastes in single cells and you decrease the life span, decrease and remove the acid wastes and you increase the life span. Researchers believe that if you remove the wastes a cell produces, and provide it the nutrients it needs, the cell will live indefinitely. Our bodies are just trillions of cells, so it is logical that this anti aging theory may be valid. JK]
There is no reason to believe this. Some sales sites reveal their ignorance of chemistry by stating that the enhanced oxygen content causes the water to act as an anti-oxidant (any high-school chemistry student should be able to debunk this one!) It should also be pointed out that evolution has allowed our bodies to develop anti-oxidant enzymes such as peroxidase that are millions of times more efficient than anything that an electrolysis device could produce even if it did work! Finally, although anti-ageing nostrums are widely marketed to the notoriously credulous seekers of alternative-health products, there is absolutely no evidence that any of these is effective.
[There is lot of evidence from many anti-aging writers that say that aging can be slowed, stopped or even reversed. Think of it like a car, if you provide it with the right fuel, remove the wastes that it produces, change it's oil, brake and other fluids, drive it with care then it will last longer then if you don't do all these things.
Good clean water and clean air are the two most important factors for our health and longevity. JK]
Dr Lower criticizes what he labels 'quackery-filled' alternative health books such as Kurzweil and Grossman's Fantastic Voyage and pH Miracle Living that 'plug alkaline water as one way of preventing cancer or of increasing one's life span.
This is one comment about Dr Young's work:
"Dr. Robert O. Young has been widely recognized as one of the top research scientists in the world. Throughout his career, Robert Young's research has been focused at the cellular level, with a speciality in nutrition. Robert Young's research findings have been published in noted journals."
I wonder what books or papers Professor Lower has published on nutrition over the years? How then does one criticise 'one of the world's top research scientists in the world' on his own field of expertise?
Fantastic Voyage fantasies
As mentioned above, the Kurzweil-Grossman book contains a number of un-truths about "alkaline water". Several of their misleading statements are outlined below; anyone questioning my comments on them can check any standard textbook on human physiology.
[There are more things under heaven and earth Stephen then are contained in your standard physiology textbooks! The only misleading statements that I can see are the ones made by our resident chemistry Prof!
This is the page about the authors http://www.fantastic-voyage.net/Kurzweil.htm
"Ray Kurzweil is one of the world’s leading inventors, thinkers, and futurists. Called “the restless genius” by the Wall Street Journal and “the ultimate thinking machine” by Forbes magazine, Kurzweil’s ideas on the future have been touted by his many fans, who range from Bill Gates to Bill Clinton. Time magazine writes, “Kurzweil’s eclectic career and propensity of combining science with practicaloften humanitarianapplications have inspired comparisons with Thomas Edison.” A recipient of the National Medal of Technology and an inductee in the National Inventors Hall of Fame, among many other honors, he is the author of three previous books: The Age of Spiritual Machines, The 10% Solution for a Healthy Life, and The Age of Intelligent Machines"
The co-author Terry Grossman, M.D. is "the founder and medical director of Frontier Medical Institute in Denver, Colorado, a leading longevity clinic. Certified in anti aging medicine, he lectures internationally on longevity and anti aging strategies. In the words of Arline Brecher, coauthor of Forty Something Forever, “I’ve met good writers and good doctors, but seldom are they one and the same. Dr. Terry Grossman breaks the mold and sets a new standard for physicians.” He is the author of The Baby Boomer’s Guide to Living Forever"
Both these authors are experts in their fields, I wonder how a retired chemistry prof thinks he knows more about their field of expertise (longevity) then they do? Dr Robert Young is likewise an expert in Nutrition, and has spent a lifetime researching it. I wonder if Dr Lower taught longevity, anti-aging or nutrition at his old University? JK]
How can alkaline water with a pH of 9 or 10 be expected to affect the body when the pH of the stomach is 2 or less?
1It is important to remember that hydrochloric acid is present in the stomach only when food is there.
2If acid were present all the time, it would eat a hole in your stomach lining.
[Both answers are correct. JK]
1The stomach always contains some gastric secretion and is always acidic; eating food stimulates the production of more acid.
[Yes, but when the stomach is empty as for example in the morning before breakfast there are very little gastric secretions sitting there. This is the best time to drink alkaline water, as most of it will flow straight through the stomach, with its pH intact. Some of the ionized water also gets absorbed from the cells on the way to the stomach. JK]
2Nonsense; the stomach lining is protected by a mucous film which is continually replenished.
[This is another misleading comment. For Gods** sake Prof, it wouldn't matter if the stomach lining was made of Titanium; the fact is that the stomach only produces acids on demand. The amount of acids the stomach can produce on demand is up to 3 litres per day. We don't have a hydrochloric acid pouch in our body to store it.
See the above discussion on stomach acidity, buffers and alkaline water
** I forget, Prof Lower doesn't like Him either - no credible scientific evidence in prestigious journals and all that! JK]
The body keeps blood pH stable by utilizing alkaline buffers to neutralize acidic liquids (such as colas, which have a pH as low as 2.5) and other acidic products and byproducts. But as the blood stream receives these acidic substances, the alkaline buffers get used up. Drinking alkaline water helps reduce the burden on the limited alkaline buffers which are needed for the body s natural detoxification processes.
[This is fact, JK]
The principal buffer is bicarbonate which is continually generated as glucose, the body's immediate cellular energy source, is metabolized. Acids convert it into carbonic acid which breaks down to CO2 and water and is exhaled by the lungs. This is the main route of elimination of acids from the body, although the kidneys play a secondary role.
[The body needs minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and zinc as fuel to sustain the buffering system, not only glucose! The bodies bicarbonates will be sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium bicarbonates; it makes effective use of hydroxides, primarily calcium hydroxide to maintain alkaline balance. Alkaline water helps the buffering system as it provides the minerals that the body needs. Yes, the lungs play a significant role in maintaining alkalinity - they provide oxygen and remove CO2. JK]
In alkalinized or ionized water, it's not actually the water that is ionized -- it's the minerals; primarily calcium, potassium and magnesium. Alkaline water has as its main benefit that it assists in the absorption of alkaline minerals.
[This is correct. JK]
Classifying these mineral ions as "acidic" or "alkaline" is nonsense, and the author has it backwards: these ions all form insoluble carbonates in alkaline solution and would become even less available. Transport of these ions across cell membranes is facilitated by specialized protein assemblies that are largely independent of local pH.
[Not true. The classification is not made by Kurzweil/Gross! When food is oxidized, the minerals remain. Remember, you can't burn rocks. Calcium, Potassium and Magnesium ARE classified as alkaline minerals. A liquid with these minerals will be alkaline; they leave an alkaline residue after metabolism and help keep the blood alkaline. Sulfur, phosphorus and iron are acidic minerals as they will leave an acidic residue after metabolism. Calcium is considered the bodies most important alkalizing mineral. In this study of rats fed cola suggests that calcium from the bones is used up in maintaining an alkaline blood pH balance. I don't understand the significance of "these ions form insoluble carbonates in alkaline solution" - they are in soluble alkaline solution as alkaline water. The minerals in it that are in ionic form, i.e. the Ca+ cation will be bonded with a OH- ion; this is what gives an alkaline pH reading and is a mechanism that nature uses to transport nutrients to the cell. If you drink alkaline water with additional OH- bonded with calcium in ionic form, this water will travel to where the calcium is needed; 2 such molecules would combine to give calcium, oxygen and water to the cell.
When the calcium is donated to where it is needed, it may form an insoluble substance (bone and teeth), which is what you want with the calcium you ingest, or it may assist the buffering process.
The bodies bio-chemical processes are very complex, any reaction or pathway is possible and happens on different occasions, but we can assume that the body will know what to do, so long as we provide it the nutrients it needs.
If you look at the studies in Appendix A, they indicate quite clearly that alkaline water helps the mineralization of the bones, and acid water does the opposite. JK]
Other alkaline water drinkers and writers about Longevity and the Anti-Aging effects of alkaline water that I'd recommend are:
- Dr Gabriel Cousins This is an interesting interview he says that "I've been on live foods since 1983. It's a very long time, and I'm in my sixty-third year, and the result of that is I'm more flexible than I was when I was captain of an undefeated football team at Amherst College, in the National Football Hall of Fame, and I'm stronger. I could do 70 push-ups then, and on my sixtieth birthday I could do 601."
- Daniel Reid, best selling author of The Tao of Health, Sex and Longevity. I read this book in the early 90's. It has been like a bible for me ever since, and I have followed the 7 day water fasting and cleansing program once or twice a year ever since. Daniel is a living Taoist Master, who practices what he preaches.
- Sang Whang, author of Reverse Aging (see above). Dr Lower tries to rubbish Sang Whang, but what patents or inventions does Dr Lower have to his name?
- Deepak Chopra Dr Lower doesn't like Chopra either, but millions of people the world over do!
Another alkaline water drinkers is Tony Robbins, the peak performance expert. I read his book Unlimited Power in the mid 80's, and have followed the acid-alkaline food combining guidelines ever since. Tony spends an entire day at his workshops with over 10,000 delegates talking about acid-alkaline foods and recommends 5-6 litres of alkaline water per day for peak performance. Tony's clients have included several US presidents, Princess Diana, Andre Agassi and many of the most influential and powerful people in all walks of life. I wonder if Professor Lower... - you get the point!
..ionized alkaline water is grouped together in smaller clusters of 5-6 water molecules instead of the 10-13 found in tap water. This makes it "micro-clustered", meaning it will be more quickly and easily absorbed, and will hydrate the tissues more effectively.
The hexagonal molecular structure resulting from electrolysis is what makes ionized water wetter than tap or bottled water. These smaller "hexagons" of water molecules are half as large as the molecular chains that come out of the faucet, and permeate cellular membranes quicker so that Alkaline Water is more hydrating and quicker to refresh after strenuous exercise.
[This is correct. You can measure cluster sizes with NMR, you can also measure surface tension in dynes, with appropriate instruments. You can taste the water. Do a double blind test with 100 subjects, ask them to try city tap water and the same water ionized. I bet that a statistically significant number will say that the ionized water is lighter, more easily absorbed. What could account for this, it's the same water? JK]
There is no scientific evidence to support the assertions about the existence of water clusters or its beneficial effects on tissue hydration. See the Water Cluster Quackery page for more information on this bunk.
[What does the science of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measure?
If water is more hydrating (as the measured smaller clusters would suggest) then it will reach the cells, so benefit the cell, otherwise it will by-pass the cells and provide the cell with no hydration or nutrients or assist with the waste removal.
See comments below about clusters. JK]
The diagram on the right is incorrect and misleading. There is no way that H2O molecules in liquid water can be stabilized or retained in the hexagonal configuration shown.
[It is no where stated the structure is a stabilized configuration; it is dynamic, moving configuration, like a molecular dance. How can anything in water be stable? Japanese and Korean scientists are not the fools that Dr Lower appears to make them look! JK]
[Website's try to reach customers attention. What about car sales sites that use women models (i.e. sex) to sell cars? Most readers take such claims with a pinch of salt - just look at the description of any herb or essential oil and see the possible benefits that are listed for it
These statements may be true. I don't know what statistical evidence there is, but it would make sense as water is needed for every bodily function and most of us are dehydrated. Just viewing water from the hydration aspect alone, it could be argued that all these are possible benefits from drinking water. If you look at the many studies, and the many health and anti-aging literature, you have to conclude that it is possible that alkaline water may be helpfully
The last one was proved by Dr Warburg, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine see his paper 'The Metabolism of Tumors', London, 1930. JK]
There is no credible scientific evidence for any of these statements, which you will find only on Web sites promoting commercial products.
[I don't think you need some silly, unreadable 'credible scientific evidence' in an elite scientific Journal before you decide whether or not to drink pure natural water. Just a little common sense will do. People have been drinking alkaline water from mountain springs and glacier water sources for thousands of years, modern science is barely a hundred years old. There are chinese writings going back to 5000 years ago about Taoist masters that lived on high mountain air and spring water and had life spans of several hundred years.
There is no 'credible scientific evidence' that proves that McDonalds fast food is bad for your health or makes you fat.
All the 'credible scientific evidence' says that McDonalds food is good for you, and there are many people that have been made bankrupt for saying that it's not.
A big mac (a chemist will tell you) has x grams of protein, y grams carbs, + a full list of nutrients - a chemically balanced meal in fact. A cola has lots of sugar that you need for energy they will tell you.
Does this mean that we should keep eating it? JK]
Beneficial uses of acidic water:
[I just let my acid water drain into the sink, but a lot of studies have been done on the the antiseptic effects of acid water. JK]
Claims such as these are widely propagated by water ionizer hucksters without any supporting evidence. If you really want to sample the "benefits" of acidic water, try a dilute solution of vinegar or almost any fruit juice.
[You can test some of these things, for example acid water is an antiseptic. JK]
A few articles on this subject have appeared in the scientific literature. Some examples are:
- S. Okouchi et al: Water desirable for the human body in terms of oxidation-reduction potential (ORF) to pH relationship: J. Food Science 2002: 67(5) 1594-98.
- K. Hanaoka: Antioxidant effects of reduced water produced by electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions. J. Appl. Electrochem 2001: 31(12) 1307-13.
- Shirahata et al: Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidatioin damage. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1997: 234 269-74
- K. Kikuchi et al: Hydrogen particles and supersaturation in alkaline water from an alkali-ion-water-electrolyzer. J. Electroanalytical Chem 2001: 506(1) 22-27.
None of these papers is very convincing to me, and I doubt that they would have passed muster in the more prestigious journals which may explain the rather strange publishing venues the authors have chosen which are quite outside the medical and physiological fields. One wonders if these journals have reviewers qualified to give papers on this subject adequate scrutiny. It's interesting to note that the last journal in the list also published the now-discredited article on cold fusion in the 1980s.
This is an underhand attempt to pooh-pooh some of the published evidence! To discredit the last scientific Journal because it published a paper on cold fusion, so implying that it can't be any good, ignores the fact that cold fusion has made a comeback! The prestigious Nature journal has recently published a report of table top cold fusion at the UCLA. This is an interesting article from the New Scientist looking at 13 things that do not make sense, including homeopathy (i.e. water has a memory, see water clusters below), placebo effect and cold fusion!
Some of the alkaline water research papers may not have been presented in the prestigious journals that the chemical giants use, but in true science the validity of a experiment is NOT related to the prestige of the Journal that publishes it. What is important is that you can reproduce it.
This is an excerpt from the Shirahata et al paper: Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidation damage: "These results suggest that the SOD-like activity of reduced water is ...due to the active hydrogen. ...reduced water decreased the amount of H202 produced by XOD. Reduced water...could directly scavenge H202. Reduce water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA by active oxygen species produced by the Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that reduced water can scavenge not only O2.- and H202, but also 1O2 and .OH"
The study shows quite clearly that alkaline water is a very effective anti-oxidant like SOD (super oxide dismutase, a very powerful antioxidant) that removes active oxygen species and protects your body (DNA) from active oxygen damage. I'm afraid I don't have abstracts of the the other three, but there are many, many other studies that have been conducted. Again, seek and you shall find. Start with clinical acid (oxidized) water studies and clinical alkaline (reduced) water studies that list abstracts from 100+ papers published in wide range of scientific journals. Also look at the medical case studies and livestock studies.
Spring Water of Saijo, Japan
Biwako Lake, the largest lake at the center of Japan and the water pool of the Kinki Region. Pollution is getting worse
Spring Water of Sanbuichi Yusui, Japan
Yodo River, Japan, pours into the Bay of Osaka. The river passes through most of the major cities in Kasai.
Fujiwara Dam, before offering a prayer
Fountain in Lourdes, France
Fujiwara Dam, after offering a prayer
From the point of hydration, the only point of interest here is that the less clumped together water molecules there are the better the absorption, the less 'boated tummy' you get from drinking the water. This is often the first thing experienced when you drink ionized water. This is confirmed by NMR figures for tap water and ionized water. The clumping-together is caused by van-der-waals forces between water molecules. The other alleged properties of clusters like 'memory' is not relevant, because electrolysis reset the memory to a blank state. This is why it's sometimes called 'virgin water'
This phenomena, and the common 6 molecule pattern, led researchers to wonder; if there is a clumping-together of water molecules, what pattern would they make? What would it look like? Could it that there is a mystery of life hidden in there? Could there be a message in the water patterns? Japanese and Korean scientists have been exploring these Structured Water Clusters for many years.
Dr Lower discredits the work of all researchers in the field of Structured Water Clusters like Dr Emoto, Dr. Mu Shik Jhon and Dr Hayashi, but I feel his views are like a bull going into a china shop! UK and many other universities are looking at structured water.
Well, if the water in your body is anything like the ideal shown at the top, then I have bad news: you are dead, and are no doubt residing in a deep-freeze!
Very funny! Shall we all have a big laugh over these mad Japanese and Korean scientists? Ha, Ha, Ha, crazy Japanese mystic, crazy Koreans professor with over 250 published articles; they think that water is made of solid crystals...Ha, Ha, Ha!
Dr Emoto does not say that water has solid structures in it. He is trying to show that there is a hidden, invisible 'structure', a pattern or memory held in water. He has devised a method to try to capture, decode or make visible this hidden information. His method is not perfect, but nature does not reveal it's secrets that easily. His starting point was when someone told him that EVERY snow flakes made a different pattern. He wondered, and then showed that this pattern that a water crystal (snow flake) makes is greatly influenced by our thoughts, words, music and so on. It could be that there are flows in the experimental procedure, but to prove that you need to duplicate the findings, approaching the experiment with the same mind-set. If you approach it convinced that THOUGHTS CAN NOT POSSIBLY HAVE AN EFFECT on water, then chances are that that is the results that you'll get.
Look at the photographs and ask yourself why a particular thought should create a particular pattern/picture? What is it saying? Why do you perceive one photograph as 'beautiful', another as 'ugly'? Why does water subjected to 'beautiful' classical music look appealing, where as the one subjected to rock music looks nasty. How do we judge beauty? Supposing you wanted to program a camera to take 'nice' photos, how would you define 'nice', 'ugly', etc? Dr Emoto didn't draw the photographs, he just took the pictures - they appear to reveal a hitherto hidden aspect of nature.
More of Emoto's photos and pseudoscientific rubbish can be found at the Hado site. For even more far-out phantasy, see More Messages in Water or The Power of Prayer Made Visible.....Emoto's book "The Message from Water" contains photos of ice crystals from waters which have been exposed to
music, words spoken, words typed and taped to the glass containers, photographs and long-distance thought messages. Some of the photographs are amazing and all of them show a response from the water.
Many of the photos are quite nice, but the shapes of ice crystals are highly dependent on the conditions and rates of freezing, so Emoto's fanciful interpretations have no scientific validity
Yes, they may not have 'scientific validity' (particularly from the point of view of a chemist!) but these are true scientists that are presenting the evidence, which others are invited to replicate. I believe that Massaru Emoto's photographs are the first evidence that water is able to store or hold a memory in its structure and that it responds to or reflects our thoughts. This explains why homeopathy works, and possibly explains many other mystery water cures like at Lourdes in France.
As we are mostly water, this means that if you have loving thoughts, these will change the cells in your body and the water clusters in your body will reflect this love. Conversely, thoughts of hate, fear, and so on will create the corresponding nasty looking, toxic 'clusters' in your body. This could be the primary cause of all ill health and disease, which over time manifests in visible forms. To explore some of the mysteries of water, read Water and the Tao.
The 'hexagonal' water that Dr Emoto, Dr Jhon and other scientists are researching is a soft, moving water 'clustering' or clumping phenomena that is continually changing, like a dance of the molecules; our thoughts are able to change it. The research is not related to any device that is marketed as being able to produce such water; it is about exploring a mystery of life. The clusters and images of water crystals give us clues to something hidden, invisible to our sight. Remember, 'a picture paints a thousand words'. Could memory, knowledge, experience be 'stored' or 'reflected' by water. Like paintings or flowers, Dr Emoto's water crystal images are saying things about the mysteries of life that words can not express, the rational mind can not comprehend.
What we know (scientifically speaking) is that hexagonal crystals are formed when water is frozen (e.g. a snowflake); we also know from NMR values that electricity appears to reduce similar clusters in water molecules, a property that lasts for 1-2 months, after which stored water reverts to 12-13 clusters for some reason. From Dr Emoto's work we are introduced to the possibility that somehow the thoughts, intentions, music, spoken words are somehow are reflected by water molecules. This, he suggests, is by means of intriguing patterns of water clusters, that are invisible, but could be made visible by Dr Emoto's method.
Dr Emoto is not selling any quack products (and neither was the late Dr Jhon). After Dr Emoto made his discovery, and took the photographs, Japanese publishers wouldn't publish them, which he self-published, and the water messages spread by word of mouth to today become a New York Times best seller. Now many people throughout the world have seen them.