Deciphering the Ailments Tied to Gluten Article Comments

As a ‘gluten sensitive’, my life changed for the better 3 years ago. Before that time I was experiencing back pains in bed as I turned over, and at the time I remember thinking. “Oh, God, so this is what it’s like to get old!”  The problem was exacerbated by the fact that I snore when I sleep on my back, so the choice was to lay on my back and escape the pain, only to risk a poke in the ribs from Cassie for my snores.

Since dropping gluten and grains in general from my diet I’ve never had back pain. And looking back, I remembered that for as long as I could remember, every six months my back would ‘go out’.. pain, stiffness, lack of movement. That has never happened since. This article by Melinda Beck signals that there is a new appreciation of the effects of gluten in the medical fraternity and that gluten and grains may be responsible for far more than we thought.

 

Researchers are making slow progress in understanding the numerous ailments that a growing number of people suffer after eating foods with gluten, a protein found in wheat.
As the Health Journal column reports, a group of 15 experts from seven countries took a step forward this week, proposing a new classification and diagnosing system to help doctors and patients figure out what’s a wheat allergy, what’s celiac disease and what falls under a new category of ills lumped together as “gluten sensitivity.”

Another international team aims to clear up the confusion caused by experts around the world using different terminology for gluten-related problems; celiac disease alone has been called sprue, gluten-sensitive enteropathy and gluten intolerance. Their consensus paper will be published soon in the journal Gut. A lesser-known disorder is gluten ataxia, in which antibodies to gluten damage parts of the brain that control gait, speech and motor function.

Researchers have long wondered whether antibodies to gluten could attack other parts of the brain as well, and some intriguing findings have emerged. For instance, people with schizophrenia have a higher rate of the anti-gluten antibodies and gene variations associated with celiac disease than the general population. And some parents of autistic children say their symptoms improve, sometimes dramatically, on a gluten-free diet, though no link has been firmly established in lab studies.

Gluten disorders could play a role in dementia as well. In a 2006 study, physicians at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., identified 13 patients with celiac disease who started showing signs of cognitive decline at the same time gastrointestinal symptoms set in. Some improved and some didn’t on a gluten-free diet, and much more research is needed to explore the connection. But neurologists at the Mayo Clinic now routinely test for celiac disease in patients with early on-set dementia.

A more fundamental mystery is why gluten, a staple of most human diets since the dawn of agriculture 10,000 years ago, is creating more health problems now.
Once considered rare, celiac disease is now believed to affect about 1% of the U.S. population, up fourfold over the last 50 years. “Has the staff of life become the stuff of illness for some?” asks Joseph Murray, a celiac expert at the Mayo Clinic. Some experts suspect that genetic changes to raise the protein content of wheat may play a role, as could industrial baking procedures that shorten the time bread is exposed to yeast. Wheat also makes up a larger portion of human diets than in generations past, and wheat consumption is growing in Asia and the Middle East, along with gluten-related disorders. Still another theory holds that the bacteria that inhabit the human body may have evolved to be less hospitable to gluten over time. Whatever the reason, says Alessio Fasano, director of the University of Maryland’s Center for Celiac Research, “our environment is changing faster than humans can adapt, and some people are paying the price.”

Ian’s say: I look at everything i read through the lens of acids and alkalis.  The inflammation caused by gluten effects is of itself acid-producing, creating that often-experienced closed circuit of inflammation causing acid causing inflammation. The more I study the more I learn about the many causes of inflammation and the more I understand that simple classification of foods into acid and alkali producing is just not enough. It’s helpful, and i for one have been helped by it, but it isn’t a ‘full house’ health solution or strategy.

What Will You Die Of? Here’s the statistics

Source: 247WallSt

Last week, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released its estimated causes of death for 2010.

The 10 leading causes of death in the U.S. accounted for 75% of the nearly 2.5 million deaths in 2010. Overall costs for the top 10 causes of death topped $1.1 trillion in 2007, the last fully reported year for all causes. 24/7 Wall St. reviewed the causes to determine how much they cost and to reflect how efficiently they are being treated.

The overall cost for the top 10 causes of death, which includes direct medical care and the indirect loss of productivity, is far greater when the lost wages of family members are taken into account. Since 2000, the overall cost of the top 10 causes of death has increased by an estimated 35%. During this same time, the death rate from these diseases and injuries has decreased by 13.5%.

In some of the areas, spending to treat the disease has been very efficient. For example, the costs attributable to heart disease and stroke (two closely related diseases) have declined both due to decreasing deaths and improvements in the efficiency of care.

In other areas, however, costs have gone up disproportionately compared to the decreases in death rate. For example, while the cost to treat diabetes has risen by 30%, the death rate dropped by only 11%. Of course, when taking lives saved into account, it is tough to decide how much is too much to spend.

Finally, some areas continue to increase in both cost and rate of death. Alzheimer’s disease deaths have increased by more than 50% over the past decade, and total costs have more than doubled. This is likely a function of an ageing population and very limited success in treatment.

24/7 Wall St. reviewed the 10 leading causes of death to determine how much they cost and how effectively they’re being treated. They used yearly estimates from the CDC to examine changes in death rates between 2000 and 2010. We also examined data from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), CDC and several national health organizations focused on individual diseases to determine the direct costs for medical care and procedures and the indirect cost of death and lost productivity, as well as to reflect how the leading causes of death individually affect the U.S. economy. The costs for each cause of death are based on the last fully reported year for all causes, 2007. More recent estimates on costs were also referenced when available.

These are the 10 leading causes of death and what they cost the American economy

…………………………………………….

10. Suicide
> No. of deaths: 37,793
> Change since 2000: 15% increase in death rate
> Total cost: $36 billion

The age-adjusted suicide rate in America has been steadily increasing over the past decade, and the costs associated with successful and unsuccessful suicide attempts continue to rise. In successful suicide attempts, more than 99.6% of the costs are due to lost wages and work productivity. In 2010, the most recent available estimate, successful suicides cost the economy approximately $34 billion. The overall cost is even higher when all intentionally inflicted self-harm is included. In 2010, there were more than 450,000 injuries in this category, which cost the economy an additional $3 billion in direct medical care costs and $5.1 billion in indirect costs due to lost wages and productivity. The rate of self-inflicted injuries increased by 36% since 2000, a greater increase than suicide itself.

9. Pneumonia and the Flu
> No. of deaths: 50,003
> Change since 2000: 32% decrease in death rate
> Total cost: $40 billion

Despite widespread use of vaccinations, influenza continues to be a major cause of death in the United States. While the death rate due to both pneumonia and flu has fallen by 32% over the past decade, the impact of the flu itself varies widely from year to year. In 2000, flu directly accounted for 1,765 of the 65,313 deaths in the category, compared to 494 of 50,003 in 2010. Much of this variation is due to the differing severity of the flu strains each year, as well as the success of the yearly flu vaccine. Until a better flu vaccine is invented, this wide variation is likely to continue. Pneumonia and the flu cost $6 billion in direct medical care and another $34.2 billion in projected lost earnings in 2007, according to the American Lung Association. This represented an increase of nearly 50% from 2003, the previously reported year.

8. Renal Disease
> No. of deaths: 50,472
> Change since 2000: 21% increase in death rate
> Total cost: $61 billion

Not only do kidney diseases cause an increasing number of deaths every year, their total cost has also been rising at an even faster pace. Dialysis, the process of filtering the blood of a patient with failing kidneys, is an enormously expensive medical procedure. In 2007, direct medical treatments cost the U.S. economy $54 billion. Between 2000 and 2009, the direct costs of kidney diseases doubled in the Medicare budget, from $12 billion to $24 billion, according to the U.S. Renal Data System. As diabetes and obesity rates continue to rise, the costs of damaged kidneys will continue to skyrocket.

7. Diabetes Mellitus
> No. of deaths: 68,905
> Change since 2000: 11% decrease in death rate
> Total cost: $112 billion

Deaths attributable to diabetes have been falling because of increased awareness and treatment of the disease complications. But even as deaths from the disease decline, more and more Americans are diagnosed and the costs of the disease continue to rise. In 2002, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) estimated that the 12.1 million Americans diagnosed with the disease cost twice as much per person in direct medical expenses compared to otherwise similar people without diabetes. That same year, they estimated $92 billion in direct costs and an additional $40 billion in losses to the U.S. economy. By 2007, there were 17.5 million Americans diagnosed with diabetes. That year, according to the ADA, costs jumped to $116 billion in direct costs and $58 billion in lost wages and productivity, for an inflation-adjusted increase of $21 billion over five years. According to the World Diabetes Foundation, 80% of type 2 diabetes, which represents roughly 90% of all cases, is preventable by changing eating habits, increasing physical activity, and improving living situations. Unless people start living a healthier lifestyle, this disease will continue to be a major drain on the U.S. economy.

6. Alzheimer’s Disease
> No. of deaths: 83,308
> Change since 2000: 50% increase in death rate
> Total cost: $70 billion

As of 2011, an estimated 5.4 million Americans are living with Alzheimer’s disease. This number is projected to hit 13.2 million by 2050, according to the Alzheimer’s Association. Alzheimer’s is a very expensive disease with high direct medical costs, as well as lost productivity from patients and unpaid care given by the family and friends. This last category is not counted in government reports as part of the disease’s cost, but was estimated at more than $200 billion in 2010 for over 17 billion hours of unpaid care. As of 2004, total medical costs for Medicare beneficiaries with Alzheimer’s disease were three times the cost of similarly aged people without the disease. From 2005 to 2011, the total direct costs of Alzheimer’s disease increased from $91 billion to $183 billion, according to the Alzheimer’s Association. By 2050, this is projected to increase to $1.1 trillion (in 2011 dollars).

5. Accidents

> No. of deaths: 118,043
> Change since 2000: 7.6% increase in death rate
> Total cost: $308 billion

The rate of accidental injury and death has remained fairly constant over the past decade. It has also remained incredibly expensive. Accidental deaths alone accounted for $91 billion in lost earnings and productivity in 2010. The direct medical costs of all accidental injuries, fatal and nonfatal, accounted for $78 billion. Additional costs due to death, disability and lost productivity accounted for another $233 billion. Despite rather stable costs, accidental death, injury and poisoning account for a greater share of medical spending and indirect losses than all other diseases on the list.

4. Strokes
> No. of deaths: 129,180
> Change since 2000: 31% decrease in death rate
> Total cost: $34 billion

While the total costs of all cardiovascular disease have declined slightly over the past decade, costs attributable to stroke have decreased an impressive inflation-adjusted 46%, according to data from the American Heart Association. Direct and indirect costs have both dropped significantly. These declines have been linked to increased awareness and treatment of major risk factors, including high blood pressure, diabetes and smoking, as well as to improvements in acute stroke care, which appears to decrease both death and long-term disability from stroke. Despite these improvements, stroke remains the leading cause of serious long-term disability in the United States.

 3. Chronic Lung Disease (Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases)
> No. of deaths: 137,789
> Change since 2000:
<1% increase in death rate
> Total cost: $65 billion

Chronic lung disease is the third leading cause of death in the U.S., but unlike the top two causes of death, heart disease and cancer, it is not seeing any significant improvement in the death rate. The main contributors to this category of disease are asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As of 2008, there were 23.3 million Americans with asthma, which cost approximately $14.7 billion in direct health care and $5 billion in lost productivity, according to the American Lung Association. Prescription drugs constituted $6.2 billion alone. Another 12.1 million adults have COPD. COPD cost the U.S. economy $42.6 billion in 2007, including $26.7 billion in direct health care expenditures, $8 billion in decreased productivity and $7.9 billion in costs related to death. Smoking remains the number one cause of COPD.

2. Cancer
> No. of deaths: 573,855
> Change since 2000: 7.5% decrease in death rate
> Total cost: $227 billion

In the next five years, cancer is likely to become the number one killer of Americans, if current trends continue. Despite major advances in treatments and increases in the number of people who survive for five years or more, few true “cures” have been found. Real progress is being made, but there is still a long way to go. Direct costs of medical treatments will continue to rise, more than offsetting any gains due to decreased mortality rates. In 2004, direct medical costs to the U.S. economy were $69.4 billion. By 2007, costs were $104 billion, and by 2020, they are projected to range between $160 billion to $200 billion, according to the American Cancer Society. The vast majority of these increases in cost are driven by new medical treatments, usually highly tailored and difficult-to-manufacture drugs that cost $5,000/month on average. One such drug, Gleevec, increased five-year survival rates to 95% (from 70%) for one blood cancer and has been used to varying degrees of success in a different cancers since.

1. Heart Disease
> No. of deaths: 595,444
> Change since 2000: 25% decrease in death rate
> Total cost: $190 billion

Heart disease remains the number one killer of Americans. But deaths due to the disease have been declining at a rapid rate over the past several decades, despite the ever-increasing issues of obesity and diabetes in America. The indirect costs of heart disease due to death have declined from an inflation-adjusted $114 billion in 2000 to $94.8 billion in 2008. Over the same time period, direct costs of medical interventions and care have decreased from an inflation adjusted $129 billion to $96 billion. These declining costs are likely due to major improvements in care. For example, in 2001, only 43% of heart disease patients were counseled on smoking cessation compared to 99% in 2010, according to the American Heart Association. Similarly, only 60% to 85% of patients were discharged from the hospital on all recommended medications in 2001, compared to 92% to 99% in 2010. Additionally, there was a decrease in the number of bypass surgeries, stent placements, angioplasties and diagnostic cardiac catheterizations between 2002 and 2009, likely contributing to the decrease in direct medical costs. Despite the recent trends, total costs are likely to rise over the next couple decades due to an aging population and increased rates of obesity and diabetes.

Baxter B. Allen, MD


Is Alkaline Ionized Water ‘snake oil’?

This question has been asked on Yahoo Answers, a site where anyone can ask a question and anyone can answer. The best answer is voted to ‘the top’ of the stck. In response to the question:

Is alkaline water a scam?

The voted best answer was by Clifton Jolley, Ph.D., who said:

Up until recently, the scientific opinion of hydration was that all you need to worry about is whether the water you ingest is verifiably clean. However, a substantial bodyof NEW scientific research into the benefits of “electrolyzed-reduced” or “alkaline water” has yielded an range of potential benefits. PubMed (published by the National Institutes of Health) lists nearly 100 double-blinded, peer-reviewed articles describing demonstrated benefits of alkaline water tested in both human and animal studies.

While it’s true the resting pH of the body is relatively stable at 7.35-7.45, the benefits of alkaline water have more to do with the performance of the water in the body than with the pH of the body. For instance, in studies conducted in Switzerland at the Lausanne University Hospital, calcium resorption was evidenced to be dramatically reduced in osteoporosis patients fed naturally-occurring alkaline water. (The scientists anticipate similar results for alkaline water produced by electrolyzed-reduced ionization.)

Other studies evidence increased absorption of nutritional supplements when ingested with alkaline water; and absorption is decreased as the acidity of the water is increased. So, while it’s true that unscrupulous manufacturers of some ionizing devices may make exaggerated claims for their products, there are reliable manufacturers making claims well within the range supported by recent science. For instance, E……. —a major manufacturer of ionizing appliances—recently published a list of claims for alkaline water based on the science reported by the NIH and other reliable scientific sources.

And in addition to the benefits of alkaline water, a growing number of applications are being found for the acidic water byproduct produced in the ionization process. Acidic water is reported to be a superior agent for cleaning and a non-polluting agent in procedures that traditionally have relied on environmentally dangerous solvents and salts, such as industrial cleaning and swimming pool sanitation. While the research is ongoing, the findings are uniformly compelling to support a number of reliable claims for the benefits of drinking alkaline water and using acidic water as a “green” solution for a number of cleaning procedures that once insisted on environment-risking solvents and other polluting agents.

The greatest risk to the advancement of water science is presented by the uninformed and the under-informed whose opinions are based upon old science or no science. For instance, to suggest “the machines don’t make water alkaline” is to fly in the face of dozens of scientific studies that rely on electrolyzed-reduction to produce alkaline water. Such opinion usually is advanced without scientific verification by persons who have neither credentials nor education in the emerging science of alkaline water benefits.

Source(s):http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19954569

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19954569
http://www.enagic.com/watertheory_kangenbenefits.php
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19202298
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20836884

Hydrogen-Rich Water cited for use in reducing the effects of radiation from Fukushima

It doesn’t take long for scientists to see the value of technologies that were ignored until the magnitude of the problem gets to ‘overload’.

It’s fair to say that the Fukushima meltdown in Japan is such an ‘overload’ situation, and this is why scientists at  the Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, in Hirosaki, Japan, are suggesting that hydrogen-rich water similar to the water produced by our water ionizers be considered as a method of countering the runaway free radical activity created by radiation exposure. For me it’s validation of what we’ve believed for a decade – that water rich in hydrogen is a powerful antioxidant, possibly better than many antioxidant supplements and definitely better than most antioxidant-rich foods.

 

For readers interested in learning more, the study linked above linked and refers to this study and this one.

Metabolic Syndrome and Alkaline Water

As usual, when reporting on the growing volume of scientific studies of alkaline water, we need to tell you that if you scroll down to the article below you agree that you understand we are NOT offering any form of Therapeutic advice, nor are we saying or inferring that the consumption of alkaline water may have a beneficial effect upon your on health. We are bound by law to advise you that before you make any change to your current heath regimen you should seek the advice of a registered health professional.

Scroll down to read…

Metabolic Syndrome and the Effects of Alkaline  Water: A study.

Research team: Cidália Pereira, Rosário Monteiro, Alejandro Santos, Maria João Martins

From: ( [email protected])

Adapted from the publication on 
Nutrição. In: Guias de Saúde. Volume 7. Vila do Conde: QuidNovi

Metabolic Syndrome.

The Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn; also called Syndrome X or Insulin Resistance Syndrome) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (or is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus).

Individual components that define MetSyn include atherogenic dyslipidemia (alteration of blood lipid profile favouring atherosclerosis development and being characterized by high fasting blood triglycerides and low fasting blood HDL-cholesterol), elevated fasting blood glucose and (or) insulin resistance (more insulin is need to control/regulate blood glucose levels), elevated blood pressure, abdominal obesity and, most recently recognized, a pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic state [a state favouring inflammation and thrombus (blood clot) formation] (Zimmet et al 2005; Johnson et al 2006; Grundy et al 2006;  Feldeisen et al 2007; Alberti et al 2009; Simmons et al 2010; Wree et al 2011).

The increasing number of individuals with MetSyn, in the past 10-15 years, has been associated with several different factors. Although the exact aetiology of the MetSyn still remains unclear, it is known to involve complex interactions between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, diet and physical activity are of central importance in the prevention and treatment of this condition. Some minerals, like calcium, magnesium and potassium, generally deficient in MetSyn-inducing diets, due to a low ingestion of milk, dairy products, fruit, vegetables, whole grains, beans and nuts, like almonds and walnuts, have been proposed protective against the MetSyn (Feldeisen et al 2007).

Minerals and the Metabolic Syndrome.

The high intake of sodium on one hand and the low intakes of potassium, calcium and magnesium on the other hand, produce and maintain elevated blood pressure in a big proportion of the population. Conversely, decreased intake of sodium alone, and increased intakes of potassium, calcium and magnesium, each alone, decrease elevated blood pressure. A combination of all these factors, that is, decrease of sodium, and increase of potassium, calcium and magnesium intakes, which are characteristic of the so-called Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets, has an excellent blood pressure lowering effect (Van Leer et al 1995; Whelton et al 1997; Karppanen et al 2005; Geleijnse et al 2005; van Meijl et al 2008).
Research has indicated that low intake of magnesium, low blood magnesium concentrations and/or low intracellular magnesium levels may lead to and are associated with elevated blood pressure, MetSyn, insulin resistance, and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (Song et al 2004; He et al 2006; Volpe et al 2008; Wells 2008). Experimental and clinical studies suggest that magnesium intake may decrease blood triglyceride and increase HDL-cholesterol levels (He et al 2006). Both individuals who did not have type 2 diabetes mellitus, but with insulin resistance and hypomagnesemia (low blood magnesium level), and individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, with hypomagnesemia, showed improved insulin sensitivity and, for type 2 diabetic individuals, improved metabolic control (lower fasting blood glucose and lower glycated haemoglobin levels), after oral magnesium supplementation (Song et al 2004; Volpe et al 2008; Wells 2008). A strong inverse relationship between magnesium levels in serum and the presence of MetSyn has been reported, in a population of overweight or obese individuals (mean age around 66 years), in which serum magnesium levels decreased as the number of components of MetSyn increased (Evangelopoulos et al 2008).

Epidemiological studies have suggested protective effects of dairy product consumption on MetSyn development. Additionally, it has been published that calcium supplements improve the serum lipoprotein profile, particularly by decreasing serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (van Meijl et al 2008). In overweight or obese women (mean age 43 years), who were very low-calcium consumers, decreases in body weight, fat mass and spontaneous dietary lipid intake have been associated with calcium plus vitamin D supplementation, for 15 weeks (Major et al 2009). Based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001 and 2005) calcium intake is inversely associated with the risk of having MetSyn in postmenopausal women (Cho et al 2009).

Drinking water and its mineral content.

Several investigations evaluated the relationship between hardness of drinking water, or its content in magnesium and calcium, and the risk for cardiovascular disease or stroke. Results support the hypothesis that a low intake of magnesium in drinking water may increase the risk of dying from, and possibly developing, cardiovascular disease or stroke (Monarca et al 2006; Rylander 2008). An additional parameter to take into account is the acidity of the water (there is considerable evidence that acid-base conditions in the body influence the mineral homeostasis and it is known that acid load influences the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in renal tubuli). It has been suggested that the health effects related to drinking water found in some studies may have been caused by an increased urinary excretion of minerals induced by acid conditions in the body and that drinking water should contain sufficient amounts of hydrogen carbonate to prevent this effect (Rylander et al 2006; Rylander 2008).
Natural mineral waters represent a substantial alkaline load and may influence mineral homeostasis in our body (Rylander 2008). Several papers in the literature point to calcium- and (or) magnesium-rich natural mineral waters as good sources of these ions (in which they are highly bioavailable), contributing to achieve their daily recommended intakes (Bohmer et al 2000; Sabatier et al 2002; Bacciottini et al 2004; Kiss et al 2004; Heaney 2006; Karagülle et al 2006). 

It is interesting to mention that, besides the influence on MetSyn components (see below), the mineral content of natural waters may have other preventive/beneficial effects.  It has been reported that in a Hungarian city the occurrence of preeclampsia varied pari passu with the magnesium content of the drinking water in different parts of the city (Melles et al 1992). In a different study, the consumption of 1L/day of a high calcium natural mineral water (supplement of 596 mg of calcium), for 6 months, reduced serum parathyroid hormone and indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with a low calcium intake (Meunier et al 2005).

Natural mineral waters and Metabolic Syndrome components.

Within the scope of beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease and MetSyn prevention, there are several publications showing that the ingestion of mineral waters with sodium bicarbonate is beneficial in lowering cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure (Luft et al 1990; Schorr et al 1996; Capurso et al 1999; Rylander et al 2004; Schoppen et al 2004; Almeida et al 2010a,b; Pérez-Granados et al 2010).

The consumption of 3L/day of a NaHCO3-containing mineral water, for 7 days, decreased systolic blood pressure, in mildly hypertensive men (Luft et al 1990) and the consumption of 1.5L/day of a sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral water, for 4 weeks, decreased mean arterial blood pressure, in elderly normotensive subjects (aged 60-72 years) (Schorr et al 1996). The daily ingestion of 0.5 mL of a portuguese natural mineral water rich in bicarbonate and sodium, Água das Pedras® (and with a higher content in magnesium, calcium and potassium than tap water from Porto city area, where the study took place), for 7 weeks, had no effect on blood pressure, in normotensive adults (aged 24-53 years) (Santos et al 2010). Also, administration of this natural mineral-rich water in an animal model of MetSyn did not increase blood pressure and improved some metabolic parameters (like plasma insulin and triglycerides levels) (Almeida 2010a,b).

Ingestion of a natural mineral water rich in calcium, bicarbonate and magnesium, as well as in sulphate, reduced blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) after 2 weeks (this reduction was kept until the 4 weeks of treatment) in individuals (aged 45 – 64 years) with borderline hypertension and with low urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium (Rylander et al 2004). In moderately hypercholesterolemic young adults (aged 18 – 40 years), ingestion of a bicarbonated natural mineral water (also rich in sodium, chloride and potassium; 1L/day), for 8 weeks, reduced systolic blood pressure (this alteration was observed after 4-weeks consumption, without significant differences between weeks 4 and 8), fasting serum levels of apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol as well as the ratios [(total cholesterol)/(HDL-cholesterol)] and [(LDL-cholesterol)/(HDL-cholesterol)] (Pérez-Granados et al 2010). In postmenopausal women, ingestion of the previous natural mineral-rich water (1L/day), for 2 months, increased fasting serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and reduced fasting serum levels of two markers of endothelial dysfunction, glucose, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol as well as the ratios [(total cholesterol)/(HDL-cholesterol)] and [(LDL-cholesterol)/(HDL-cholesterol)] (Schoppen et al 2004).

Conclusion.

Presently, with the increase in MetSyn and type 2 diabetes mellitus, associated with a high consumption of calorie-rich and micronutrient-poor foods, ingestion of natural mineral-rich waters may be beneficial. This effect may be even greater if ingestion of sweetened beverages is replaced by natural mineral-rich waters (Schulze et al 2004; Vartanian et al 2007; Feldeisen et al 2007).

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. Santos A et al. Sodium-rich carbonated natural mineral water ingestion and blood pressure. Rev Port Cardiol. 2010; 29(2): 159-72.
. Schoppen S et al. A sodium-rich carbonated mineral water reduces cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. J Nutr. 2004; 134(5): 1058-63.
. Schorr U et al. Effect of sodium chloride- and sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral water on blood pressure and metabolic parameters in elderly normotensive individuals: a randomized double-blind crossover trial. J Hypertens. 1996; 14(1): 131-5.
. Schulze MB et al. Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. JAMA. 2004; 292(8): 927-34.
. Simmons RK et al. The metabolic syndrome: useful concept or clinical tool? Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. Diabetologia. 2010; 53(4): 600-5.
. Song Y et al. Dietary magnesium intake in relation to plasma insulin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27(1): 59-65.
. Van Leer EM et al. Dietary calcium, potassium, magnesium and blood pressure in the Netherlands. Int J Epidemiol. 1995; 24(6): 1117-23.
. van Meijl LE et al. Dairy product consumption and the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res Rev. 2008; 21(2): 148-57.
. Vartanian LR et al. Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. 2007; 97(4): 667-75. 
. Volpe SL. Magnesium, the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2008; 48(3): 293-300.
. Wells IC. Evidence that the etiology of the syndrome containing type 2 diabetes mellitus results from abnormal magnesium metabolism. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008; 86(1-2): 16-24.
. Whelton PK et al. Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. JAMA. 1997; 277(20): 1624-32.
. Wree A et al. Obesity affects the liver – the link between adipocytes and hepatocytes. Digestion. 2011; 83(1-2): 124-33.
. Zimmet P et al. The metabolic syndrome: a global public health problem and a new definition. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2005; 12(6): 295-300.

Canned Soup anyone?

December 2011
A study by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health indicates that BPA used in the lining of food cans is absorbed by the food and then ingested by consumers.

The experiment involved 75 participants, half of whom ate a lunch of canned vegetable soup for five days, followed by five days of fresh soup; the other half did the same experiment in reverse order. “The analysis revealed that when participants ate the canned soup they experienced more than a 1,000 percent increase in their urinary concentrations of BPA, compared to when they dined on fresh soup.

“In general, most studies have found that urinary BPA levels in typical adults average somewhere around 2 micrograms per liter. That was roughly the levels the Harvard researchers found in the subjects after a week of eating the soup made from fresh ingredients. After eating the canned soup, though, their levels rose above 20 micrograms per liter, a 1,221 percent increase.”

Ian: Dammit! I haven’t had canned soup for many years but I do love some tuna with my green salad at lunch….
BPA Info:
Original NY Times report 

Inflammation, Acid and Candida

Thanks to Dr Greg Emerson for this link to a study that indicates the relationship between Candida Albicans and inflammation. The study postulates that inflammation can increase candida overgrowth, which in turn increases inflammation.

WE already know that acidic conditions cause inflammation, so when I read the study I thought they could have taken it to the next logical step. To reduce candida overgrowth, reduce acidity, which reduces inflammation.. which reduces Candida. What do you think?

The Primal Antioxidant and Ionized Alkaline Water

What if you had.. and used..a really powerful longevity method.. but didn’t even know that you did?

Warning!
I am not qualified to make therapeutic claims. This article contains my story. It does not purport to make any therapeutic claims. The effects I experienced may not work with others and I recommend you talk to your registered doctor before you act upon the information I have given here.

 

I received an email today about this strategy. It was one of those long emails that end up selling you the latest supplement.. I’m sure you get them!

It talked about research carried out in Valencia, Spain, which attempted to discover why women outlive men.

Researchers discovered that women “over-express” a certain gene that in turn,triggers the production of a powerful “super enzyme.”1 This super enzyme apparently extends a woman’s life by supporting the health of every cell in her body.

Results were published in the journal of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies. You’d think the industry would be falling over each other trying to replicate it. But like many excellent studies, Big Pharma obviously looked at it, took out the calculator, and decided the returns weren’t astronomical enoughut most doctors are still in the dark.

Scientists who know about it call it the “Methuselah enzyme,” after the Biblical figure that lived for almost a thousand years.

Further aging studies found that animals that produce the highest levels had the longest health spans. And, when they genetically engineered fruit flies to have double the amount of this super enzyme, ruit flies lived twice as long.

So if we do have a method of increasing this magic ‘Methusaleh’ gene.. wow!

The email went on to describe how difficult it was to replicate, how many had tried, and yes, of course, how only they had succeeded. Just like all the other supplement selling emails I’ve read.

The super enzyme that continues to amaze researchers is superoxide dismutase or SOD.

One of SOD’s protective roles comes from being a big time free radical fighter. SOD rules over your body’s immune system and is your primary and self-generated antioxidant. As an antioxidant, it’s the most powerful your body has. Antioxidants that come from vitamins and food sources pale in comparison.

 
ANTIOXIDANT PROTECTION LEVEL
Primary Antioxidants
SOD Highest
Catalase Exceptional
Glutathione Peroxidase Exceptional
Secondary Antioxidants
Glutathione, CoQ10 Very Strong
Carotenoids, Vitamin E Strong
Flavinoids, Vitamin A, C Strong
Minerals, Proteins Moderate

Just look at this table to see where SOD sits!

SOD Production of  starts in the womb. In one study, genetically engineered mice whose bodies couldn’t make their own SOD died in just days from massive free-radical damage.2

Antioxidants only come from two places; body and diet. The ones our body can make – like SOD – are primary antioxidants and the most powerful.

Secondary antioxidants come from your diet or supplements like CoQ10, vitamin E, etc. Or…..

You’ve probably heard about secondary antioxidants like CoQ10. They are very powerful and very expensive. 

According to the email, the big ‘breakthrough’ was a new way to get SOD into the body instead of relying on us manufacturing enough at a cellular level. This is a a great achievement.. but is it the only way? The email claims that this new kind of SOD is ‘the only way to boost your body’s level of SOD’.

Why is that? SOD is such a fragile molecule, it was impossible for it to get through the digestive system without being destroyed. Ongoing research has shown:3

  • Free SOD is destroyed in the stomach.
  • Oral supplementation of free SOD does not increase tissue SOD activity.
  • A small percentage of SOD can be placed in the intestinal tract but cannot get past the gastrointestinal (GI) barrier.

So their ‘big breakthrough is enteric coating. They put the SOD into a capsule that doesn’t break down until it gets past the stomach. Nothing new. Sang Whang used it six years ago to create a bicarb supplement that could get past the stomach without being neutralised.

The email says that from the very first moment, and for as long as you use SOD, you can increase your health span.

This increase in the length of time you can live while still feeling healthy and happy, comes from powering up your immune system and zapping the free radicals that accelerates how quickly you age.

The Bad Guys: Free Radicals

Free radicals are the “bad guys” that damage your organs and tissues, causing them to age faster and fall apart more quickly. Some are simply metabolic byproducts. When your cells burn oxygen for energy, depleted oxygen molecules become unstable and may damage surrounding organs and tissues.

Free radicals are also generated when your body absorbs toxins and other poisons in our environment.

Every time you breathe in car fumes, cigarette smoke, smog, or chemicals, that’s causing a new swarm of free radicals. These free radicals tear through your body causing damage every moment of the day.

One doctor estimates that every cell in your body gets 10,000 free-radical attacks every day.How many cells do we have? 50 trillion cells. Ouch.

SOD keeps cleaning up the attacks on your organs and tissues and keeps them in a strong, youthful condition for much longer… depending on how much SOD you have.

That’s why the mice in the experiment mentioned earlier died without SOD. You can’t survive in the outside world unless you have enough.

SOD’s free-radical fighting power stands alone. There’s nothing better. Compared to vitamin C, it’s 3,500 times stronger.4

But SOD doesn’t just seek and destroy free radicals. That’s what secondary antioxidants do.

SOD Protects Your DNA

SOD makes every cell in your body more resilient and able to fight off attacks better from the outside. No other antioxidant even comes close to that kind of power.

What’s more, SOD safeguards your DNA, the blueprint your body uses to build every organ, tissue and cell in your body. Everything I’ve rad about antioxidants zeroes in on this; that free radicals can and do break down our DNA: our cell replicator. So we lose the ability to regenerate.

In a randomized, placebo-controlled study, researchers exposed two groups of people to high pressure oxygen. In the study, the control group’s delicate strands of DNA broke. But not the group taking the super new SOD supplement. Their cellular membranes remained virtually intact and even more important, there were no DNA strand breaks.5

SOD supports your immune system and safeguards your DNA in a way that fights off the devastating forces of aging.

That’s why the fruit flies that were engineered to have twice as much SOD in the experiment I mentioned earlier lived twice as long.

And that’s why you’ll enjoy a longer health span when you raise your levels of SOD.

All good so far.. but.. there’s always a but … not everyone has the same levels of SOD.

Making Sure Your Levels of SOD are High Enough!

Ever wonder why some people eat well and do everything right but still age quickly, while other people drink, smoke and eat junk food and live to be 90? This might explain it:

Levels of SOD vary by as much as 50% depending on the subject.6

Perhaps that’s why some people age quickly and why others live to a ripe old age without any problems.

SOD is such a critical measure of longevity, it seems to outweigh other risk factors like diet and exercise … even smoking.

For me, this data stinks. It tells em that if I am one of the people who doesn’t produce enough SOD, I can live the good healthy life- which I do – and still die young. And if I don’t buy their supplement I am dicing with my DNA’s future. 

And then….I remembered…

It was a sentence in a study carried out in Japan that i had read many years ago.

“The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of reduced (That’s alkaline ionized water!) water is stable at 4 degrees C for over a month and was not lost even after neutralization, repeated freezing and melting, deflation with sonication, vigorous mixing, boiling, repeated filtration, or closed autoclaving..”

Dr Shirahata and his team of research scientist had discovered that our water acted just like SOD!10
I searched a little more.. and found a Korean study showing how the water protected DNA, RNA and Protein!11 This study was carried out not on rats, but humans.
 And just below that, I found a study that said the water enhanced the effect of other secondary antioxidants!12

Then I remembered something more.

Some years ago I was at an exhibition in Sydney, displaying our water ionizers. I’d been talking non-stop for three days when a friend dropped into our stall and said “Hey, there’s a guy a few aisles away that tests your antioxidant ability.” I was tired. I’d been on the go non-stop for a week, setting up and then talking.

But… what did I have to lose? Things had slowed up at my exhibit – so I followed my friend to the stall. It was a man with a machine and a computer. You sat down, he put a sensor on the inside of your wrist, and it measured your level of Antioxidant protection. He was, by the way, also selling antioxidant supplements to all the failed test-ees. He passed the probe over my wrist, looked at the computer and frowned. “Something wrong?” I asked. “What have you been taking?” he asked. “Taking? You mean antioxidants? Nothing. Why?” I replied.

“Why?” He answered.”Because this machine measures up to 30. If you’re ’30′ you have good antioxidant protection.
And you have 45. Come on, tell me. What are you on?”

Well the only thing I was ‘one’ was water. Alkaline Ionized water. the same water I’ve been drinking for almost twelve healthy years.

1. Vina, J. et al, “Why females live longer than males? Importance of the upregulation of longevity-associated genes by oestrogenic compounds,” FEBS Letters; 579(12): 2541-2545
2. Li, et al, “Dismutase,” Nature Genetics 1995; 11:376-381
3. “Dietary free superoxide dismutase does not affect tissue levels,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1983; 37:5-7 
4. Colman, J., “Life Span-Increasing Effects of Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD),” LEM Winter 2005/2006
5. Muth, C.M., Glenz, Y., Klaus, M., et al, “Influence of an orally effective SOD on hyperbaric oxygen-related cell damage,” Free Radic. Res. Sept. 2004; 38(9):927-32
6. Ueda, K., et al, “Levels of SOD in Japanese people,” Acta. Med. Okayama Dec. 1978;(6):393-7
7. Vouldoukis, I., et al, “Supplementation with gliadin-combined plant superoxide dismutase extract promotes antioxidant defenses and protects against oxidative stress,” Phytother. Res. Dec. 2004; 18(12):957-62
8. Weise, Elizabeth, “Wine ingredient resveratrol as anti-aging pill,” USA TODAY Nov 29, 2006 
9. Rahman, I., Biswas, S.K., Kirkham, P.A., “Regulation of inflammation and redox signaling by dietary polyphenols,” Biochem. Pharmacol. Nov. 30, 2006;72(11):1439-52

10>Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 May 8;234(1):269-74. 

Shirahata S, Kabayama S, Nakano M, Miura T, Kusumoto K, Gotoh M, Hayashi H, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y. 

Institute of Cellular Regulation Technology, Graduate School of Genetic Resources Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. [email protected] 

Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be ‘active hydrogen’. ‘Active hydrogen’ can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (DH), and extremely negative redox potential (RP) values. Strongly electrolyzed-reduced water, as well as ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin and tannic acid, completely scavenged O.-2 produced by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XOD) system in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of reduced water is stable at 4 degrees C for over a month and was not lost even after neutralization, repeated freezing and melting, deflation with sonication, vigorous mixing, boiling, repeated filtration, or closed autoclaving, but was lost by opened autoclaving or by closed autoclaving in the presence of tungsten trioxide which efficiently adsorbs active atomic hydrogen. Water bubbled with hydrogen gas exhibited low DO, extremely high DH and extremely low RP values, as does reduced water, but it has no SOD-like activity. These results suggest that the SOD-like activity of reduced water is not due to the dissolved molecular hydrogen but due to the dissolved atomic hydrogen (active hydrogen). Although SOD accumulated H2O2 when added to the HX-XOD system, reduced water decreased the amount of H2O2 produced by XOD. Reduced water, as well as catalase and ascorbic acid, could directly scavenge H2O2. Reduced water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species produced by the Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that reduced water can scavenge not only O2.- and H2O2, but also 1O2 and .OH. PMID: 9169001 


11. Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006 Nov;135(2):133-44. 

Lee MY, Kim YK, Ryoo KK, Lee YB, Park EJ. Department of Genetic Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 336-600, Korea. 

The generation of reactive oxygen species is thought to cause extensive oxidative damage to various biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein. In this study, the preventive, suppressive, and protective effects of in vitro supplementation with electrolyzed-reduced water on H2O2-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes were examined using a comet assay. Pre-treatment, co-treatment, and post-treatment with electrolyzed-reduced water enhanced human lymphocyte resistance to the DNA strand breaks induced by H2O2 in vitro. Moreover, electrolyzed-reduced water was much more effective than diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water in preventing total RNA degradation at 4 and 25 degrees C. In addition, electrolyzed-reduced water completely prevented the oxidative cleavage of horseradish peroxidase, as determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Enhancement of the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid dissolved in electrolyzed-reduced water was about threefold that of ascorbic acid dissolved in nonelectrolyzed deionized water, as measured by a xanthine-xanthine oxidase superoxide scavenging assay system, suggesting an inhibitory effect of electrolyzedreduced water on the oxidation of ascorbic acid. PMID: 17159237 


12. Biophys Chem. 2004 Jan 1;107(1):71-82.

The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis.

Hanaoka K, Sun D, Lawrence R, Kamitani Y, Fernandes G. 

Bio-REDOX Laboratory Inc. 1187-4, Oaza-Ueda, Ueda-shi, Nagano-ken 386-0001, Japan. [email protected] 

We reported that reduced water produced by electrolysis enhanced the antioxidant effects of proton donors such as ascorbic acid (AsA) in a previous paper. We also demonstrated that reduced water produced by electrolysis of 2 mM NaCl solutions did not show antioxidant effects by itself. We reasoned that the enhancement of antioxidant effects may be due to the increase of the ionic product of water as solvent. The ionic product of water (pKw) was estimated by measurements of pH and by a neutralization titration method. As an indicator of oxidative damage, Reactive Oxygen Species- (ROS) mediated DNA strand breaks were measured by the conversion of supercoiled phiX-174 RF I double-strand DNA to open and linear forms. Reduced water had a tendency to suppress single-strand breakage of DNA induced by reactive oxygen species produced by H2O2/Cu (II) and HQ/Cu (II) systems. The enhancement of superoxide anion radical dismutation activity can be explained by changes in the ionic product of water in the reduced water. PMID: 14871602 [PubMed]

A Scientific Study of the Effects of Alkaline Ionized Water we could do without.

As a part of my ongoing research into the many health benefits of alkaline ionized water I get to see many scientific reports. But here’s one that frankly we could all do without. To demonstrate the efficacy of alkaline ionized water these scientists gave hairless lab rats radiation burns… then measured how effective healing was with AI water and tap water. Not surprisingly, the AI water was much better than the tap water.. but.. what were they thinking?

Super Oxide Dismutase: The Anti Aging Factor We Can Change

This little video is very intereresting. It comes from a pro-vegetarian website, and makes the conclusion that superoxide dismutase, the oxidant killer, is much more powerful in vegetarians. Only problem is, as usual.. what is a vegetarian these days? If the SOD support comes from green foods like broccoli and spinach. I’m happy because I eat them daily.. along with meat and fats. But most vegetarians I know (having been one for 12 years) are of the ‘lazy’ variety, bulking up on carbs, especially bread, and really loading up on sugars in the form of fructose and fructan- heavy fruit.

The Good News is that there’s not on but three studies I’ve been able to find demonstrating the ability of alkaline ionized water to biomimic the antioxidant properties of our own natural superoxide dismutase.

Here’s the first…

Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 May 8;234(1):269-74.

Shirahata S, Kabayama S, Nakano M, Miura T, Kusumoto K, Gotoh M, Hayashi H, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y.

Institute of Cellular Regulation Technology, Graduate School of Genetic Resources Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. [email protected]

Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be ‘active hydrogen’. ‘Active hydrogen’ can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (DH), and extremely negative redox potential (RP) values. Strongly electrolyzed-reduced water, as well as ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin and tannic acid, completely scavenged O.-2 produced by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XOD) system in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of reduced water is stable at 4 degrees C for over a month and was not lost even after neutralization, repeated freezing and melting, deflation with sonication, vigorous mixing, boiling, repeated filtration, or closed autoclaving, but was lost by opened autoclaving or by closed autoclaving in the presence of tungsten trioxide which efficiently adsorbs active atomic hydrogen. Water bubbled with hydrogen gas exhibited low DO, extremely high DH and extremely low RP values, as does reduced water, but it has no SOD-like activity. These results suggest that the SOD-like activity of reduced water is not due to the dissolved molecular hydrogen but due to the dissolved atomic hydrogen (active hydrogen). Although SOD accumulated H2O2 when added to the HX-XOD system, reduced water decreased the amount of H2O2 produced by XOD. Reduced water, as well as catalase and ascorbic acid, could directly scavenge H2O2. Reduced water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species produced by the Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that reduced water can scavenge not only O2.- and H2O2, but also 1O2 and .OH. PMID: 9169001

Here are two more…

Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006 Nov;135(2):133-44.

Lee MY, Kim YK, Ryoo KK, Lee YB, Park EJ. Department of Genetic Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 336-600, Korea.

The generation of reactive oxygen species is thought to cause extensive oxidative damage to various biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein. In this study, the preventive, suppressive, and protective effects of in vitro supplementation with electrolyzed-reduced water on H2O2-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes were examined using a comet assay. Pre-treatment, co-treatment, and post-treatment with electrolyzed-reduced water enhanced human lymphocyte resistance to the DNA strand breaks induced by H2O2 in vitro. Moreover, electrolyzed-reduced water was much more effective than diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water in preventing total RNA degradation at 4 and 25 degrees C. In addition, electrolyzed-reduced water completely prevented the oxidative cleavage of horseradish peroxidase, as determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Enhancement of the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid dissolved in electrolyzed-reduced water was about threefold that of ascorbic acid dissolved in nonelectrolyzed deionized water, as measured by a xanthine-xanthine oxidase superoxide scavenging assay system, suggesting an inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on the oxidation of ascorbic acid. PMID: 17159237


Biophys Chem. 2004 Jan 1;107(1):71-82.

The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis.

Hanaoka K, Sun D, Lawrence R, Kamitani Y, Fernandes G.

Bio-REDOX Laboratory Inc. 1187-4, Oaza-Ueda, Ueda-shi, Nagano-ken 386-0001, Japan. [email protected]

We reported that reduced water produced by electrolysis enhanced the antioxidant effects of proton donors such as ascorbic acid (AsA) in a previous paper. We also demonstrated that reduced water produced by electrolysis of 2 mM NaCl solutions did not show antioxidant effects by itself. We reasoned that the enhancement of antioxidant effects may be due to the increase of the ionic product of water as solvent. The ionic product of water (pKw) was estimated by measurements of pH and by a neutralization titration method. As an indicator of oxidative damage, Reactive Oxygen Species- (ROS) mediated DNA strand breaks were measured by the conversion of supercoiled phiX-174 RF I double-strand DNA to open and linear forms. Reduced water had a tendency to suppress single-strand breakage of DNA induced by reactive oxygen species produced by H2O2/Cu (II) and HQ/Cu (II) systems. The enhancement of superoxide anion radical dismutation activity can be explained by changes in the ionic product of water in the reduced water. PMID: 14871602 [PubMed]